Skip to main content

Full text of "The art of dying well"

See other formats



Written originally in LATIN 

By Cardinal BeUarmin. 

Now Tranflated into English 

by John B a l late Ledurer of 
St. Bartholomews the Lefs^ London. 

With an A D D I T I O N of Prayers 
Suited to the Subject of each Chapter. 

Publilh'd for the Benefit of the Translatour. 

L O N D O 

Printed by /. VaUon. The Book may be had at Mr. a/jfey 
Sword-Cutler at; Charing-Crofsy Mr. '^ones Stationer hv St, Bar- 
tholomevo's Cloifters, at'lMr. Sunderlan£^ Coffec-Houfe inWar- 
Tvzfh'Zaney Tilgrims CofFee-Houfc in Hi^bHolbvrn, near Li::tk 

■ J^een-Street, Mrs. IVbHss in ^itbins-JB^ the Ro^al Ex- 
change, 172c, 



O F 

The Translator. 

H E Motive which induced 
me toTranflate this Author^ 
was not any Regard 1 had 
for his Principles; being 
fully fatisfy'd, that the Number of the 
Articles of the Chriftian Faith ought 
neither to be Encreafed^ nor Dimini/h'd ; 
and That 'tis equally Heretical in Ibme 
to Believe too Much^ as it is in others to 
Believe too Little. 

I lhall not Diftruft the Readers Judg- 
ment fo far, as to imagine that he will 
Diflike the Book on the Account of the 
A 2 Authour y 

[ iv ] 

Authour'y and not rather ConfiderJTZjo^ 
he has wrote upon the Subjed, than 
Who it v/as that wrote it ; And then I 
perfwade myielf That I fliall have no 
occafion to make any Apology for the 
FubHcation of it. For a Wife and a 
Qood Man will be willjng to receive 
Inil:rufl:ion from whatfoever Hand it 

The great Learning and Abilities of 
Beuarnun^ I believe were never quef- 
ticn'd. In his Moral Difcourfes Par- 
ticularly, he Wrote with a Primitive 
Simplicity of Thought 5 and great 
Strength of Reafon ; and he feems there 
to have performed Beft^ where he was 
Ic^^^ Su^erjiitious. 

Any Pretence that there have been 
other Excellent Difcourfes Publifh'd 
on the flime Subject, I believe, can be 
ro Reafonable Objediion againll This; 
Bccaufe the Contemplation oj 'Death may 
be very well managed by Different Au- 
thour? ; as the lame Profpecl may be 
Finely drawn by Diiferent Hands. 


[ V] 

Where-ever my Authour goes off in- 
to the Romijh Innovations^ 1 have at- 
tempted to Give him another Turn. 
The Stiiihefs of the Scholafiick way of 
Writing, which fometimes intermixt 
itfelf even in his Pradical Works, I 
have endeavoured to Soften ; and to 
throv^t into a more Natural, and Eaiy 
Style" 1 muft farther Own, that I have 
taken fome Liberty, where it was Pro- 
per, to Enlarge his Thoughts. 

In his Second Book, becaufe they 
were fhort, 1 have lay'd his Three 
Chapters of TEMPTATIONS into 
One; as I have for the fame Reafon^ 
the Two following ; yet in this Free- 
dom, I have neither broke in upon the 
Senfe of the Authour, nor inverted the 
Order of the Book- 

The Method Obferv^cl in theEnfuing 
Difcourfe, is fomewhat Agreeable to 
That of our Modern Sermons. The Au- 
thor generally Introduces each Chapter 
with a Text of Scripture, Suitable to 
the Subjeft of it. The Doftrincs Na- 
A 5 turallK 


turally arifing from Thence are Ex- 
plained^ and Enforced with found Judg- 
ment, And the whole is Apply 'd to the 
Confciences of Men, with all the Force 
of Eloquence and Perfwafion. 

Since I entred upon the Tranflation, 
To make the Book more Ufeful, I 
Judged it Proper to Compofe a Sett of 
Devotions, which I have adapted to the 
Argument of each Chapter. I have 
Printed them Together, that the Rea- 
der might ufe them without Interrup- 
tion, as a Regular Form of Prayer for 
the Common Exigencies of Men^ either 
in a State of Healthy or Sicknefs. 

I Promife Myfelf upon the whole, 
That the Following Treatife will ap- 
pear in Every Part of it to be of Gene- 
ral Service ; as being Excellently well 
fitted by its Authour to the State and 
Condition of Man in this World ; and 
is, as I conceive, One of the moft Ra- 
tional, and Inftrudive Difcourfes on the 
Subject of Mortality, now Extant. 






^juith ^yi}'fclfj at my 
' Ufual Seat of Recefs^ (IVhere, 
^ bewg T)ijchargd from Tublick 
Affairs J I am move at Leifurc 
to Retire into myfclf) What fJooidd be the 
Reafon^ why jo very^ Few flmuld Learn tJoe 
Art of Dying well, zvhich ought to he the 
Conflant Study and Concernment of All ; I 
could Account for fuch a TraiBice no other 
isoay^ than from that Olfervation of the 
Wiie-man, viz. That the Knowledge of 
Wifdom hath not been made Mani feft, 
and none hath underftood her great 
A 4 Experience. 

[ viii ] 

Experience. For ^ to Reafon fairly ; ^hcrc^ 
in can any Alan Betray his "want of Know^ 
IcdgCj or T)ij}tng7AiJh Himfclf "with more 
Irnj)rudence^ than by a willful Ignorance of 
that Art J which Alone can Teach him whaf 
is the Chief Happinefs for which he was 
Created^ and the M^ms to Obtain it : And 
at the fame time to be fo Terverfely Wife^ 
as with greai Labour ^ and Incejjant Af^ 
plication to Terfue the Knowledge of Hu^ 
man Learnings or any other Inferiour Arts^ 
whereby he may Promote his Interefl^ and 
Encreafe his Eflate ? That the Art of Dy- 
ing well is a Confideration of the Highejl 
Confequencey and therefore Worthy of the 
Knowledge of a Wife and Good Man is 
Evident from hence y That ^)eath T)eter^ 
mines the Everlajlir:g State of Man^ by 
fending him into another World to Give an 
Account of all his Thoughts^ Words ^ and 
Actions J before Gody Angels^ and Men. 
The 'Devil who is call'd the Accufer of the 
Brethren will then draw up the Indt6lment 
againji him ; his own Confcience^ which af- 
ter hjs Difjolution^ can neither be hardnd by 


[ ix ] 

Ohflinacyy nor deceivd hy Ignorancejfijall he 
Trefent cts a Witnefs ; and God^ the So-- 
vereign Judge of all Men^ JJoall fafs Seur 
tence u^on him. 'Hw a Matter oj Common 
OhfervatioUy how Diligent^ and Jndufln-' 
om every Man is in all Cajes of Civil De- 
bate, and what Interefi and Application 
he makes to procure judgment in his Fa^ 
vour f^Mnd at the fame time^ when the 
Great Caufe of his own Everlajting Hap-- 
pinefi or Mtfery is to he Heard at the 
Awful Tribunal of Godj how Carelefs^ 
how Negligent is he? He too often goes out 
of the W ')rldy wholly Unc arable to give any 
Account of fuch Things^ which perhaps^ 
when he was in a State of Healthy he ne^ 
ver fo much as Thought of f^rom hence 
we may Account for the Vmal Dejlruclion 
of all wicked Men ; concerni^ig whom St, 
Peter cries out with much Fear and Amaze^ 
ment of Thought ; Where ftall the Un- 
godly and Sinner appear? This Confider^ 
ation indued me to JVrite This Difcourfe 
upon ^eath^ and to Exhort both my f elf and 
my Chriftian Brethren to Look beyond the 

Gfave ; 

Grave ; and^ that if there is any Man who 
hiis not LecLrnd the Knowledge of Dying 
well J from a more Able Handy to T erf wade 
him to Terufe what I have CoUe^ed from 
the Holy Scriptures^ and the moft Eminent 
Fathers upn this SuhjeB ; and what I 
have alfo Enforced by Natural Reafon. 

But before I Proceed to Enlarge ^ fuch 
Rides as areTre^aratory to aHa^ '[Death y 
J conceive it may not be altogether Impre^r 
to ConJIder fomething of the Nature of 
^eath it [elf y as whether it he Good or 
Evily a Tmijhmentj or an Advantage to 
us ? Mow if "Death be conftdered Abfolmte^ 
ly in itfelfy according to the Common Notion 
of ity it Implies a Separation of Soul 
and Body^ it ought ^ no Doubt onty to be 
looked u^on as an Evil ; becaufe it Depives 
a Man of Life^ which no One can deny to 
be Goody as being the Gift of God y I would 
addy on this Occaftony the Opinion of Solo*- 
mon ; God made not Death, But Uia- 
godly Men with their Words , and 
Works have brought it down upon 
Themfelves. St. Paul is entirely oj the 

fame Opinion. The Wages of Sin is 
Death. By One Man^ Jays he^ in an-' 
other flace^ Sin entr'd into the World, 
and Death by Sin. The Inference is Strong 
md Conclufive ; If God made not T)eath\ it 
carmot^ fim^ly confiderd^ he accounted Goody 
or a Benefit to ManHnd ; for according to 
the Teftjmony of Mofes, God faw every 
Thing tliat he had made, and behold it 
was Exceeding good. 

I^oiso altho'* 'Death^ confiderd in its own^ 
^Jature is Really an Evil^ and a 'Vunifh^ 
ment to Mankind y yet by a Religious ufe of 
thofe Means which the IVifdom of God has 
a^pointedy it is frequently Ofttended "with ve* 
ry Good ConJequenceSy and may^ if a Man 
be not "wanting to himjelfy prove to he of the 
Utmofl Advantage to him. The Death of 
a Righteom Man is the Beginning of his 
Happmefsyand his Firfl Entrame intoGlory^ 
^Tisjo Beneficial to hiMy That God himfelf 
is 'coeU Tleas'd "with it. Right Dear, in 
the fight of the Lord, is the Death of 
his Saints, is "what T/je Royal Prophet 
affures us of The Churchj^ in Om of her 


Collefts, flaking of the Saviour of MaU" 
hndj Thus espreffes Herfelf ; That Chrifl 
ly his Death has overcome heathy and hy 
his Refurre^lion hath of end unto us the 
Gate of Everlajling Ltfe. Mom That 
heathy which T)ejlroyd Deaths and Re-^ 
fiord Men to Everlajling Life^ mujl Cer^ 
tainly be a Benefit to them^ at leafl in the 
Bleffed Effe<Hs of it. It woj^ for this Rea^ 
fon that St. Ambrofe has Wrote a Book 
upon this Subjeft, ^wherein he proves very 
Cleerlyy That altho Death be the Natural 
^umfhment ofSin, yet^ if the Confiderat ion 
of it be rightly Imfrovdj that Yis of great 
life and Advantage to Men. 

But that the Reader may not be Obligd 
to Believe this Truths barely ^ becaufe I have 
told him foyJ fhall afjign fome Reafons for 
what I have faid ; and Trove^ That tho^ 
7)eath be an Evil in itfelf^ yet that by the 
Grace of Gody and his own Endeavours^ it 
may be of the Highefi Confequence to him. 
Tor in the Firft place, Death futs an End 
to all the Difficulties he Labour d under ^ and 
to all the jdffli(^ions which fat heavy upon 

[ xiii ] 

him in the whole Courfe of this Life. The 
very Trof^eSl of 7)eath to a Man under 
Tain^ or IVant^ or Terfecution gives him 
Comfort and Refrejhment. Job^ who was 
Sadly Senftblc of the Truth of it^ hcvs given 
a very Melancholy ^ejcripion of the Alt- 
feries and Misfortunes of Human Life. 
Man that is Born of a Woman hath but 
a (hort^SiTxie to Live, and is Full of Mi- 
fery. j4nd the Wife Man, who had 
made the Befi Obfervations upn the State 
and Condition of Man w this IVorldy is of 
Opinion That ^tis Better not to Be^ than to 
le Miferahle. Wherefore, fays he^ I 
praifed the Dead, that are already 
' Dead, more than the Living v^hich are 
yet Alive. Yea Better is he, than they 
who have not been, who have not feen 
the Evil work that is done under the 
Sun. It was the Contemplation of 7)eath 
and an Invifible State which Fortify d St. 
Paul, amidfl all his Sufferings^ and be knew 
how to Bear the AffliBions of this Life^ 
Becaufe he could not long Survive them. If 


[ XIV ] 

in this Life only we had hope in Chrift, 
we ftiould be of all Men moft Miferable- 

Tht6 then is Undeniably Evident both from 
Reafon and Scripture^ That ^eath throws 
m into a State oj Injinjibilityy 1 mean with 
Regard to all the Calamities and UneajineJ^ 
fes of this Life. But Then^ when we cdnfi- 
der that it O^ens a N^ew Scene of Life^ a 
Ufe of Sincere andUnmin^^dT)eU^,:t ^ This 
in the Second place creates an Inepc^rejible 
Complacency in the Soul^ and is the mofl Tranf 
porting Confequence of our Leaving this Tre^ 
fent world. The Soul of Man is Enlargd by 
^eathfrom all the Incumbrances ofFleJhand 
Satjej and Rifes with Cheerfullnefs and Vi^ 
gourfrom aDunghill to a Kingdom y It pajfes 
thro the ^ark Chambers of the Grave^ into 
theRegions of Eternal Light. The Following 
Revelation made to St.]o\\n{iSi)hen he wasBa- 
niJFd into the Ifle ofVditmo%^Confirms This ^ 
1 heard a voice from Heaven^ faying un- 
to me^Write ; BlelTed are the Dead which 
Dye in theLord^ ev n fo faith the Spirit;^ 
for thy reft from their labours^ and their 
works follow them. Death is the hflru- 



ment in the Hand of God^ whereby He not 
only Sets the Soul at Liberty from ^ijjiculty 
arid Trouble j whereby he Lifts it above the 
Reach of Danger and Tem^tation^ But alfo 
Fip^es it in the OpenVtfion and a near Enjoy ^ 
ment of Himfelf The Souls of Good Men^ 
after all their Conflids with their Spiritual 
Enemies J are Removd by Death to the 
Heaveijly Jerufalem, there to Receive a 
Crown of Glory ^ as the Reward of that Bra- 
very and Refolution^ which they Exerted 
Here in Fighting the Good Fight of Faith. 
JSfay the Advantages of Dying are fo Great 
that evn JViched Men do in fome RefpeiH^ 
Jhare in the Benefits of it ; For as there are 
Different Degrees ofHa^pnefs and Glory ^as 
alfo of Mifery andTumfiment in a Future 
State jt will be Some Abatement of their In- 
felicity^ that Ded th^uts a Sto£ to their Tro^ 
grefs in Wickednefs, and notfermitts them 
to arrive at Higher Degrees of Dif obedience. 

it u the Confederation of thefe Advantaoes 
among others^ attending the Death of^the 
Righteous Manywhich Enliven him^even in 
all the Agonies of his Diffolutionywi^h aTe- 


[ xvi ] 

ctdiar Alacrity^ This that Sweetens his 
Tains ^ThatDifarms theTerrours ofT^eath^ 
imd makes it look Lovely and ^ejtrealle to 
him. Jt was the fame Religious Ajfurance^ 
the fameTrof^eiH of Heaven and Jmmortali^ 
tjj ^a)hich Occafiondy St. Paul to cry out. 
To me to Dye is Gain ; And therefore he 
Ardently deflrdy To be Diflbly'dj and to 
be with Chrift. And to Moderatejjur Sor- 
TOWS upn the Lofs of a ^e^artedRelation^ 
orFriendy he advifes ^/^^Theflalonians^ and 
in them all Chrtjlians^ Not to forrow even 
as Thofe which have no hope ; For if 
we believe that Jefusdy'd and rofe again, 
even them alfo which fleep in Jefus, will 
God bring with him. 

17?^ mojl Matural Inference^ which a 
(jlwd Chrijlian can Draw from what I have 
Saidtij)on the SubjedtSy Chat dtho" Death 
not only a Temporal ^ hut an Eternal Death^ 
is the Natural Tunijhmcnt and Confequence 
of Sin^yet by the Grace oj Gody and theMe^ 
rits of Jefus Chrift^ who Suffered for ws^ 
we may make it Comfortable ojnd Delightful 
to OurfdveSj ami to End in a hifc ofHa^- 
pncfs and Glory. THE 

( I ) 


Art of Dying well. 


Chap. I. 

The FirB Rule Freparatory to a Happy Death is 
this That he who defires in earneft to die 
a Happy Death, niuft be careful to live a 
Holy and a Virtuous Life. 

Y Defign In the fillowir.g Treatlfe is 
to coni;der fuch R lies of Life^ as may 
b'^ of fome Advantage to us when we 
come to Die. I fhali divide the whole into 
Two Parts ; in the fijft I fhalllay down fuch Rules for 
dying well, as m y be of fome Service to us, when we 
are in a S'ate of Health ; in the latter I fhall conCder 
fuch liiftrudions, as may be of good Importance to us, 
when we are vihted any dangerous Illnefs, ard 
may have fome Re^fon to believe, thar Death is making 
its neareft Approaches to us. In ihe firft Boojc, I fhall 

B treat 

2 The Art of Trying well. 

treat only of ihofe Rules which arife from a Confidera- 
tion of the Nature of the Qhriftian Virtues^ the Cbriftian 
Sacraments^ and other Holy Infiituticns of our Saviour, 
In the fecond, I fhall enlarge only upon fuch Argu- 
ments, as arife from a Confideration of the four lafi: 
Things, viz : Deaths ju^gment^ Hearueny and HeU^ 
together with proper Refle6i:ions on the Nature and 
Prevalency of fuch Temptations as we are moxl expos'd to 
in our laft Hours, and of fuch Rem^dies^ as may with 
mofi: Succefs be apply'd to thera. A due and, diftin£l 
Confideration of each of thefe Particulars will furnifii 
Mankind with the beft Inftru6lions for a Holy Life, 
and the moH: fiiitable Preparations for a Happy Death. 

But before I enter upon Particulars^ I muft premife 
in General, That he who defires to die well^ muft he careful 
to form his Life accordingly. For fmce Death is nothing 
elfe but the Period or Conclufion of Human Life, 'tis a 
iiece{Tary Confequence, That he who ends or concludes 
his Life 'vvcll, dies well; nor is it poffible for that Man 
to die in a wicked State, who never' liv'd fo i As it is no 
lefs true on the other hand, That an unhappy Death is 
the natural Conflquence of a wicked Life, and that 'tis 
morally impoffible it (hould be otherwife. This Obfer- 
vation is no lefs true in the common Occurrences of 
Life. He who goes on in a (Irait Path, never miflakes 
his Way, but arrives fafely at his Journey's end. Thus 
he,who applies hirafelf diligently to the Study of Human 
Learning, in a reafonable Time, may make a conlide- 
rable Proficiency, and attain to the Laft Improvements j 
but without a conftant and regular Application to Bufi- 
nefs, the Bed InOruJlions will be of little or noSignifi- 
cancy to him, 


The Art ofD/tng well 5 
It may be obje£i:ed probably upon the Argument I 
am upon, that the Cafe of the Thief upon the 'Crofs 
was quite different; that he always thro' the whole 
Courfe of his Life continued in a finful State, and yet 
at the laft, that he died a peaceable and a happy Death, 
But I muft crave leave to difpute the Truth of that Af- 
fertion 5 for it rather appears to me, that that pious ind 
holy Robber aU'aysliv'd a pious and holy Life, and for 
that Reafon principally, that he died a holy and prace- 
able, For tho' he fpent the greateft part of his 
Life in Sin and Difobedience, yet the little remaining 
Part of it, was, in fuch a wonderful manner^ employed 
in the Service of his Lord and Saviour, that I perfv/ade 
my felf, God was pleafed to forgive his former OIFen- 
ces, and receive him into his Favour. For with ho W 
becoming a Zeal, and how with the mofl: flaming 
Love of God> had this Man the Courage, even ia the 
Height of his Suffering?, to vindicate his dying Saviour 
, from the fcornful Reproaches of his Perfecutors, and 
with a Charity no lefs affectionate to his Neighbour 5 
how did he admonifh, and indeed very fharply reprove 
his bkfrheming Fellow-fufFerer, and in the very In- 
ftantoF his own Death, endeavour to prepare him for 
Immortality ? Dofi not thou fear God^ fays he, feeing 
thoH art in the fame Condemnation! And v;e indeed 
jufily ; for we receive the due Reward of our Deeds ybut tkis 
M(in hath done nothing amifs, Luk. 23. 40, This 
holy Acknowledgment was made when he was yet livV- 
ing, as was alfo that memorable Confeffion of our Sa- 
viour's Divinity, and the devout Adoration he paid to 
him J l,ord remember me when thou comefi into thy 
Kingdom, Ver. 45.- So that this penitent Tnicf feerps 
ro m.e to be of the number of thofe Perfons who came 

B % lafl 

4 Jhe An of Dying well, 

|a{l: info tbe Vineyard, and yet by rcafon of a more 
Exemplary Life, and an Extraordinary Fairh, they re* 
ceiv'd a Reward equal to the firft. 

This general Rule therefore is evidently true, That 
he who livts well, dies well , and on the other hand. 
That he who is ur.righteous in his Life is unhappy in 
his Death ; and it muft be acknowledg'd at the fame 
time, that 'tis a dangerous Point to defer our Repen- 
tance to a dying H >ur That good for a Man to 
hear the Toke in his Toutk L^m. 3 z^, and that thofe 
Men are happy beyond Meafure, who, in the Lan- 
guage of St. John, are redeemed from among M(n, being 
the fiyfl Fruits unto Gudy and the Lamb ; who are not 
only not dififd with IVomen, but in whofe Mouth there 
is found no Guile^ as being w:thout Fault before the 
Throne of God. Rev. 14. 5, 4. Of this bleffed 
Number was the Prophei. Jeremtah^ Sx.John who was 
more than a Prophet, and many other holy Men and 
V/omen, who are known only unto God. This then 
is my fir ft Propoficion, That a wtuous and holy Life 
will ccftalnly ivfure a happy Death. 

C H A P- 11. 

The Second Rule Preparatory to a Happy 
Death ts^ To die to the World. 

IT is incumbent on every Man, that he may live as 
he (hould do, ro die to the World. For all Men 
who live Co the World, are dead unto God. Ic is indeed 

The Art of Dying well. 5 

morally Impoffible, that any Man can fo much as 
begin to live unto God, before he is dead to the 
World. This Truth is fo plain and perfpicuous from 
the WriiFrgs of the Old and New Teftament, that it 
can never be Called in Qutftionbut by Atheifts and li;ti- 
dels. But, That in the Mouth of two or th ee IVitnef- 
fes evrj Word may he eftabUjli'd\ I (hull produce the 
Evidence of Sc. John^ Sc. James^ and Sc. Faul^ Wit- 
neffes beyond Exception j Men who were extraordi- 
narily infpir'd with the holy Spirit of Truth. Sujohn 
the Apoftle and Evangelift, iiitroducing Chrift him- 
(elf fpeaking, writes thus, The Frtnce of this World 
cometh^ and hath nothing in me ^ John 14. 30, Where 
by the Prince of the World he underftands the D^-vil, 
who is the Prince aad Governour of all Wicked Men $ 
and by the World he underftands the whole Number 
of Wicked Men, who love the World, and arebelov'd 
by it. And in the next Chap. vcr. 18, 19 If the 
World hate y 014^ ye know that it hated me before it ha* 
* ted you. If ye were of the World^ the World would 
love its own-y but becaufe ye are not of the World^ 
hut I have chofen you out of the World, therefore the 
World hateth you. And again in his 17th Chapter, 
yer. 9. 1 pray not for the Worlds hut for them which 
thou haft given me. Where 'tis obvious, that our Sa- 
viour by the Title of the World underftands thofe, 
who, with the Prince of this World the Devil, fhall 
hear, in the Day of Judgment, that fatal Sentence, 
Co ye curfed into everlafimg Fire. The following 
Advice, enforc'd by Reafon, is given by the fame A- 
poftle in his ift Epiftle, zd Chapter^ .15, 16, 17 ver. 
Love not the World^ neither the things that are the 
World, If any Man love the Worlds the Love of the 


6 Th^ An of T>ymg well 

Father is not in him. For all that ts in the WorU^ the Lufl 
of the i'klh, the Lufi of the Eyes, and the Pride of Life, is 
not of the Father^ hut is of the World, And the World 
fajfeth away^ and the Lufi thereof: hut be that doeth 
the Will ef God ahideth for ever. St. Jawes in Chap.4. 
and the 4th verfe, writes the fame Do6lrine. Te A- 
dulterers and Adulterefj'es^ know je not that the Friend* 
fhip of the World is Enmity with God f Whofoever there* 
fore will he a Friend of the World^ is the Enemy of Gcd, 
St. Paul likewife, who was a chofen Vejjely wxiting to 
all the Faithful, exprefles himfelf to the fame pur- 
pofe 5 For then^ fays he, mujl ye needs go out of the 
World. I Cor, 5th Chapter and the loth verfe. And in 
the fame Epiftle, Chap. 11. ver. 23. When we are 
judgedy we are chaftifed of the Lord^ that we jhould 
not be condemned of the World. In thefe laft Words 
Sr. Paul exprefly declares, that the whole World fhall 
be condemn'd at the laft Day. Where he iinderftands 
by the World, not the material Frame of Heaven and 
Earth, nor the whole Body q[ Men inhabiting the 
World, but thofe efpecially who love the World, and 
have ftt their Hearts' and AfFe61:ion3 upon ir. For 
Men of ftri6l Piety and exemplary LiFe, in whom ths 
Love of God dwelleth , and who are not in Suhje* 
Bion to the Lufts of the Flefl}^ may properly indeed be 
faid to be in the Worldy but not to be of the World but 
Men of a loofe Life, and unholy Converfation, are 
not only in the World, but of the World ; and that for 
this Reafon, becaufe the Love of God reigneth not in 
their Hearts^ but the Lufts of the Flejh, that is Luxu- 
ry ; the Lufi of the Eyesy that is Covetoufnefs ; and the 
Tride of Life, that i?, fuch a Haughtinefs and Elation 
of Mind, whereby they rather imitate the Pride and 


The Art of Djiing tpell, 

Ambkion o£ the Devil, than the meek and humble 
Patte<Ti of Jefm Chrifi, 

As the Cafe ftands thuj, to be perfe£IIy acquainted 
with the An of Dying 'well, there lays an Obligation 
upon every Man, not only in Word and in T jngue, 
bur in Deed and in Truth, in f ;me Senfe to go out of 
the World nay, indeed, to dje to the World ^ and to fay 
with St. Vaul^ The World is crucify d unto me, and j 
unto the World, Gal. vi. 14. This, however, I muft 
confefs is not a trifling Matter, but a Work of the 
greateft Difficulty and the higheft Concernment. And 
therefore when this Queflion was put to our Saviour 
Are there few Lord that jhallhe faved ? The Anfwer was 
Strive to enter in at the ftrait Gate, And again, in Sc 
Matthews Gofpel, Enter ye in at the ftrait Gate, for 
wide is the Gate^ and broad is the Way that leadeth to De^ 
ftruSlton^ and many there he which go in thereat ; becaufa 
jirait is the Gate^ mid narrow is the Way which leadeth 
unto Lifey and few there be that find it* 

To have our Abode in the World, and at the 
fame Time to live above the World, requires all the 
holy Courage and Bravery of a ChriRian. To behold 
the Beauty and Comelinefs of all earthly Bleffings, and 
yet not to fettle our Affc6lions upop them j to Tafte 
the Sweetnefs and Delicioufnefs of Life, and yet not to 
be overpleas'd and fond of it ; to defplfa Honours 
and Preferments • to be averfe to a Life of Eafe aad 
Pleafure ; to condefcend to fit in the loweft Sear, and 
give others the PrehemJnence ; in fborr, to live in the 
Flefli, and at the fame Time to live above the Fiefh 5 
This ought to be look'd upon rather as the Life of an 
Angel, than that of a Man. And yet the Apoftle 
writing to the Church of Corinth^ the Members o, 


8 Th^ Art of Dying well. 

which were almoft all of them marry'd Men ; he 
thui? Addreffs himfdf to them, But thir, I fay^ Ere- 
thren, the time is Jh'irt, It remainnh, that both they that 
have Wives, he as tho they bad none\ and they that 
oveefi as tho they weft not; and they that rejojce, as 
tho they n joyed not ; and they that buy, as tho* they 
fi ffeffed not j and they that ufe thts World, as not ahufing 
it j for the fusion of this World fajjeth away^ i Cor. xxix. 
30, 31. The Senfe of thefe Words is evidently this, 
Tnat raifing our Minds and Thoughts to a joyful 
Hope of Life and Immortality, we (hould be as indiflFe- 
renrly afFe£lcd with all earthly Enjoyments, as tho' they 
were of no Concernment to us : He allows indeed a 
Conjugal Affedion between a Man and his Wife but 
yet in Comparifon of that Divine Ljve which Breaths 
after Heavenly Things, it ought to be as Nothing. If 
Paffion prevails over Nature, and throws us into Tears 
for the Lofs of our Children or oOr Eftates, we muft 
fupprcft the Rlfings of Grief, and not be forry as Men 
Tvithout hope, If a Man be aovanc'd to a confiderable 
Pofi:^ or fucceeds to a large Elfa e, let him keep his 
Joys within due Bouncs; it by his Labour and Indu- 
flry he put chafes a Houie, r r a Pu ce of Gr-, Jet 
him fit as loole to ttie Polleffi .»n of if, aj if he had 
no Rijiht or Title to it. I«j fhor , S\ Fau in this 
Exhortation advifes us, fo to livt; in this World, aS 
Stranger?, and Probationers, and rmi as it we were 
Citizens and Inhabitants ot ir, which S . Pe'er more 
plainly inculcates, v/hen he fays, J befeech yo>^ as Stran- 
gers and Filgrirm, abjtain from jit'\hl>i Lufisy Tvhicb 'war 
againfi the Soul, This bleifed Apoftlc ^vould have us 
live m our own proper City and Habitation, as if we 
were travelling in another Country, altogether regard- 

The Art of Dj/ing well. 9 
lefs whether we liv'd in a State of Plenty or Want. 
This Precept is glv'n for this Reafbn, That we may 
abfia'm from fle^ly Lufis which war agalnfi the Soul 5 
For the Carnal Inclinations of Men do not eafily rife, 
when they look upon the enticing Objefls with In- 
difFerency, and as no Ways concern'd ia them. This 
therefore is to live in the World, but nor to be of the 
World j which is the peculiar Felicity of thofe only, 
who are dead to the World, and live only to God. 
By this Means they conquer the natural Fea' s of Death, 
which creates no Uneafinels in them^ but is the Occa* 
fion of inexprelTible Delight and J -y ; according to 
that of Sr. Tauly To me to live is Chrifi^ and to dye is ^ain. 
But what a Mournful Occafion does this Medica* 
tion offer me, when I confider the prefent State 
and Condition of the World ? How Few, in Com- 
parifbn of Numberlcfs Sinners, /hall we find thus Mor- 
tify'd to the Flefh, and Dead to the Enchantments 
and Temptations of the World ? Alas How Few 
in Comparifon with thofe, who are not only not Dead 
to the World, but who riot in its Pleafures and Dtbau- 
chcries, who wanton in Intemperance, and devote 
themfelves with the moft Ardent. AfFc6lion to the Riches, 
Honours, and Pleafures of the World, not confidering 
what St. Vaul affures them of, That thej Jhall he con- 
demn d with ihe World, 

But here perhaps it may be reply 'd by thofe who 
have fix'd their Hearts and AfFc61:ions entirely upon the 
World, that 'tis next to an Impofllbility to Dye to the 
World, while we live in it, and to take no Pleafure in 
the Enjoyment of thofe good Thing-?, which God 
has created not only for the Necefilry and Rcfrefh* 
fnent, but even in fome Inftances, for the Delight of 

G humin 

10 7Xe Art of Dying mil. 

human Life. The Anfwer to what Is alledg'd is 
thisi That 'tis neither the Command, nor Will of God, 
that a Man (hould have an Entire Averfion to the 
Jliches, Honours, and other good Things of Life, 
which God has created for the life of Man ^ for this 
would argue a Contempt of his Providence, and is 
Allowable by many Inftances of Scripture. Abraham, 
who was the Friend of God, was Immenfly Rich. 
Davidy Ez,ekiahy and Jo/ia, were very Opulent Princes, 
and at the fame Time the Favourites of Heaven , 
and the fame may be fa id of many Chriftian Kings 
and Emperors. The Affluence, the Preferments, the 
Delights of the Vv orld, and the Purfuit and Enjoyment -ia- of 
them, are not altogether forbidden Chriiiians; but 
too Ardent a Defire, too Eager a Purfuit of 'em, 
which is caird by St. John, The LuB of the Flejh^ 
the LuH of the Eye^ and the Vride of Ufe, are moft ex- 
prefly forbidden. Abraham, 'tis true, had Riches in 
abundance, but then he never made them the Inftru- 
ments of Luxury ; he enjoy 'd them with Moderation, 
«nd was always ready to difpofe of them according 
to the Direcl:ion of that good Providence which gave 
them. For be who fpar'd not his own Son, when 
God was pltas'd to command him to be facrific'd even 
by his own Father. With what Cbeerfulnefs and Holy 
Refignation, if God required it, would fuch a Perfon 
part with the greateft Treafares ? So that Abraham, 
iho' he had great Abundance, yet was he more Rich 
towards God j in Faith, in Charity, in good Works; 
and by Virtue of that Spiritual and Divine Life he led 
here, was entirely Dead and Mortify'd to the Worlds 
This is no kfs triie, of many Wealthy, Potent, and 
J^onour;;ble Pifnccj^j who ihp'i^rpfiding oyer Kiflgdom§, 

The Art of Dying well ii 

indRals'dto theHigheft Stations of Digniry, and Go- 
vernmentj yet being Poor in Spirit, and Dead to the 
World, and Living only unto God, were perfe6lly ac- 
quainted with 'The Art of Dying Well. So that neither 
a great Affluence of Riches, nor the HigheH: Titles 
and Honours, not even Empire and Dominion itfelf, 
can have fuch a Prevailing Influence over the Minds 
of good Men, as to enflave them to an immoderate 
Love of the World. 

If an^ Man therefore, affiled by the Almighty 
Power of the Spirit of God, (hall raife his Soul, in*- 
to the Higheft Tranfports of Divine Love, fhall 
Love God, not fo much out of a Confideration of 
his Beneficence to him, as from a Contemplation of 
the Excellency of his own Nature, and Super- eminent 
Perfc6lions ; if in Con(equence of fo Heavenly a Flame, 
^he fliall, for the Sake of God, Love his Neighbour as 
himfelf. This Man has the Beginning of the Diviile 
.Life within him; and as the Love of God^ arwi of 
his Neighbour encreales daily, the Love of the World 
and all earthly SatIsfa6tions will fenfibly vanifh and 
decay in him. 

When a Man is arriv'd to fiich a State of HolineQ as 
this, Thofe Duties, which, when the Love of the 
World had wholly engrofs'd his Thoughts, feem'd Un- 
pleafant, and almoft Impra6licable to him, he will now 
perform with the greateft Eafe and Pleafure ; and it will 
be his Meat and Drink to do the Will of his Father which 
"is in Heaven. 

As I therefore obferv'd before;This Religious Duty of 
Dying to the Worlds and eftrang'r g our Affe6lions from ir, 
is no eafy Performance \ bui a Work of Labour and Re- 
folutiort, of Difficulty and Toil, and that efpecially ro 

C % thofe, 

12 The Art of Dying well. 

thol^, who depending upon their own Strength, have 
not experienced the Power of the Spirit of God, nor 
tailed th« fweets of Divine Love, as being fenfual, hav- 
ing not the Spirit. 

'Tis a Duty therefore Incumbent on every Man, 
who defjres in good earn^ft to underftand the Art 
<f J^P^^ '^^IK upon which his true Happinefi does 
Principally depend, to keep o^ with all Speed, from 
the Pieafures of Fkfi) and 5ew/e,and to Dye to the World j 
For 'tis a great Inconfiftency to imagine, tht.t we can 
Live to God and the World at the fame time ; or that an 
Earthly and a Senfual Life will qualify us for the Enjoy- 
ment of Heaven, 


The Third Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death 
is^ To obferve carefully the Three Theolo- 
gical Graces, viz. Faith J Hope^ and Charity. 

IN the lad Chapter it was made to appear, that a 
Man can't Dye well, unlefs he Dies to the World ; 
It follows now, according to the natural Order of 
Things, that I confider what Duties are incumbent on 
him, who is Dead to the World, that he may effedually 
Live unto God, Now the General Duty of Living well 
K compendioufly drawn up by the Apoftle, Tim. i. j. 
The End of the Commandment is Charity, out of a 
Pure Heart, aitd of a good Confcience^ and of Faith 
unfeigned. St. Vaul was not ignorant of the Anfwer 
given by our Lord, to the Apoftle, who ask'd him. 


The An of Dying welt. tj 
LorJ, what (hall I do that I may inherit eternal Life ? 
Jf thou wilt enter into Life, fays he, Keep the Com' 
tnandments. It was our Saviour's Intendment not 
only to defcribe, in as few Words as could be, the 
Main End and Scope of the firft Commandment of 
the Law, in which not only the whole Law itfelf, 
but even the Knowledge of that Lav/, and the Ac-; 
compliftiment and Perfe6tion of it did confift, nay even 
the Hopes of Eternal Salvation did principally de- 
pend upop ; but at the fame Time to Inftruft us alfo 
what Virtues and good Qualifications are neceffary 
to make up and conftitute, according to the Condi- 
tions of Evangelical Obedience, a PerfctS Righteous 
Man ; agreeably to what he had declared in another 
Place, I Cor. xiii. i 3, And now ahideth Faith^ Hope^ 
charity y thefe Three \ hut the great efi ofthefe is Charity^ 
In which Words he exprefly declares, That the End of 
the Commandment is Charity j that is, that the Chief 
Defign of all the Moral Precepts of the Law, 
the Obfervance of which is Neceffary to a good 
Life, does principally confift in Charity ; fo that he 
who is inflam'd with this principle of Divine Love, 
will, in Obedience to that Law, form his Life ac- 
cording to ail the particular Branches of if, fpccify'd ia 
the Firft Table ; and that he who is endow'd wich a 
true Chriftian Charity towards his Neighbour, will ia 
Confequence of that Principle, fullfil all the particular 
Duties of the Second alfo. This latter Duty of Love 
to our Neighbour, that it might have an equal 
Evidence with that of our Love to God, St. Taul 
does more fully explain in the igth of the Romans^ 
He that lowh another^ hath fulfilled the Law. For 
this, phou fialt not commit Adultery ^ thoujhalt not Kili, 


14 The Art of T>ymg well 

tboti p)alt not Steal^ thou fhah mt hear falfe Witnefsi 
thou jhalt not Covet ; and if there he any other Qom* 
mandment^ it is briefly comprehended in this faying^ 
namely , Thou (halt love thy Neighbour as thy felf. 
Love 'ivork^eth no ill to his Neighbour^ therefore Love 
is the fnlfilling of the Law^ VerC 8, 9, 10. From 
this Argumeiit it is evident. That all the Moral Pre- 
cepts of the Law, which relate to the Worfhip and 
Obcdlenee, and Service of God, do, and ought to 
proceed from the Love of him. For as the Love of 
our Neighbour workelh no ill, but obliges us to all 
Chriftian A6l:s of Kindnefs and Affc6fion to him, fb 
the Love of God worketh no ill to God, but obliges 
us to all thofe Ads of Outward and Inward Homage 
and Adoration, which the Dignity and Excellence of 
his Nature demand of us^ fo that the Love of God, 
and the Love of our Neighbour is the Fulfilling and 
Accompliftiment of the whole Law. 

Wherein the Nature and Excellence of true Evange- 
lical Love, both towards God and our Neighbour does 
confift, St, Vaul informs us in the Words above-men* 
tion'd, viz,. In a pure Heart, in a good Confcience^ 
and in Faith unfeigned. In which Words, by a good 
Confcience, we are to underftand with Sr. Auflin^ in 
his Preface to the 31ft Pp/w, the Virtue of Hope% 
which was always accounted one of the Theological 
Graces. This Divine Grace is callM by the Name 
of a good Confcience, becaufe it does naturally Re- 
fult and Spnrg from i: ; as all Defperation, with its 
Self- tormenting Thoughts, does from a bad one ; ac* 
prding to that of St. Beloved^ if our Heart 

condemn us itot^ then have ive Confidence towards Gcd^ 
Eph. in. zi, ^Tis evident from hence, That there 


The Art of 'Dying weil 15 

arc Three Heavenly Graces, in which the Perfeftion 
pf the Chriftian Law doth confift ; Chari: y out of a 
fure Heart, Hope out of a good Confcience, and a ^mcere 
and Orthodox Faith ^ of which tho* Charity be the 
moft Perfedt and Excellent Grace, yet is a Sound 
Faith the Caule both of Charity and Hope alfb. 

The firft Theological Grace therefore which I 
[hall infift upon, (hall be Faith, becaufe *cis, as I 
obferve it, the Holy Fountain from whence all other 
Chriftian Virtues do proceed, and is the Firft Principle 
of the Divine Life in Man, before his Juftification 5 
St. Paul gives it the Title of unfeigndy and that for 
this weighty ' Reafon, Becaufe 'tis only a True and 
Sincere, and not a Counterfeit and an Hypocritical Faith 
that juftifies a Man. Now a Man may be faid to be 
Infincere and Hypocritical in his Faith Two Ways, either 
when he pretends to believe the DoCtnne of Jefus Chrift j 
when in Reality he does not believe it j or other wi(e, 
when indeed he does believe it, but lives in (b Irregular 
a Manner, as the' he did not believe it. Xhofe Words 
of St. Paul, They frofefs that they know God, hut in Works 
they dtny him. Tit. i. 16. is Applicable to both thefe 
Sorts of Men j and in this Senfe they are interpreted 
both by St. ferom and St* Aufiin, 

From the Notion of Faith thus ftated, what a Melanr 
jcholy Reflexion is it to confider, how great the Number 
of thofe Men is, who do not Live well, and by Confcf 
quence that Dye ill. To pals by all Infidels, Pagans, 
Hereticks, and Athcifts, who are altogether ignorant of 
The ^rt of Dying well^ How great is the Number of 
thofe who ad inconfiftently with their Belief ? Who 
profefs that Jefus Chrift fhall be the Judge of the Quick 
^nd Pead;j and yet live in fuch a licenuous fanner a§ if 

1 6 Th(f An of Trying vpell. 

they were to give no Account of their A£^lons • who 
fpeak highly in Praife of Abftinence, and Prayers, and 
Giving of Alms, and other Works of Piety and Charity, 
and yet are always pra£lifing the contrary Vices, It is 
therefore the higheft Con rradi61:ion in thefe Men to pre- 
tend to a Sound and Sincere Faith, who neither live nor 
believe as the Chriftian Faith dire£ts them ; and from 
hence let them learn what little Reafon they have to 
believe themfelves in a State of Grace, or to expe6t the 
Favour of God. 

The next Theological Grace is Hafe^ or as *(is call'd 
by Sr. VavHy A good Confcience. This Grace proceeds 
from a Sincere Faith : For no Man can have any Reafon 
to hope in God, who does not believe in Him, and who 
does not alfo believe him to be both Good and Powerful, 
f, e. That he pities our Neceffities, and is able to relieve 
thtm. But to excite and ftrengihen this Hope info a holy 
Confidence in God, a good Confcience is the moft pre-p 
vailing Means. For with v/hat Affurance can any 
Man addrefs himfelf to God, or requeft any Favour 
from him, who has fome lurking Stings of Guilt within 
hitfi, for Crimes as yet unrepented of? With what Face 
can he ask a Favour from him whom he has provok'd ? 
What Confidence can he have in this Providence,when he 
is fadly fenfible even to the Soul of him, that the Wrath 
of God hangs over his Head ? The wife Man with great 
Eloquence has defcrib'd the mlferable Condition of fuch 
Men. The hope of the ungodly^ fays he, is like the Bufi 
that is Mown away with the Wtnd ; like a thin Froth 
that is dri ven away with the Storm j like as the Smoak 
^ich is hiffz^sd here find there with a Tewfe^, and 
pajjeth away as the Remembrance of a Guefi that tarrietb 
hut a Day. Wifd. J. 4. 


The Art of Dying zveU. 1 7 

Thefe Words are a ufeful Admonition to all 
Wicked Men, That their Hopes are falaclous, and 
ill-grounded ^ ot a (liort Date, and nerer Lading. 
For altho* as long as Life continues they may have 
lome Hopes that they fliall Repent, fome Time or 
another, and make their Peace with God, yet is it 
the Ordinary Pra61:icc of thefe Men to defer their Re- 
pentance to a Dying Hour 5 and at that dreadful 
Juncture, unlefs prevented by God's Special Grace and 
Mercy, and a Sincere Repentance, which at that 
Tirtie is a Work of Extreme Difficulty, all thefe 
Imaginary Hopes are chang'd into Defpair, and with 
thofe Wicked Men in the fame Chapter they make 
this Heavy Complaint againfl: Themfelves, We have 
End from the Way of Truth^ and the Light of 
Right eoufnefs hath not jhind unto us. What hath Vrid& 
profited us ? Or ovhat Good have Riches with our 
Vaunting brought us ? All thofe Things are pajfed away 
like a Shadow. In thefe Words the Wife Man Preaches 
to all Men'^this wholefome Do6):rine, That if they would 
Live Virtuoufly^ and Dye Peaceably, they fhould Kdc 
like Men and Ghriftians, and immediately Refblve 
upon Amendment j That they fhould not flatter and 
deceive themfelves with thefe and the like Notion?, 
viz,. That they are now in the Bloom and Spring of 
Youth, that they have many Years, in all probabi- 
lity, to Live in the World, and therefore that ic 
will be Time enough to think of Repenting hereafcer. 
For fuch a Falfe Confidence as This has deceived 
many, and will, generally Speaking, for ever deceive 
Thofe who fhall be (b Weak as to Truft to ir. 

The Third Theological Grace remains now to be 
confider'd, and that is, Love or Charity, This is the 
J D Queea 

1 8 The Art of Dpng well. 

Que( n of all Chrlftlan Virtues, with which whofoever 
is Endow'd, can never Perifh, without which no Man 
Living 15, or can bis Juftlfy'd, Now to eonftitute 
the Nature of True Charity, it is neceflary, that it 
proceed from a "Pure Heart ; not that Purity of Heart 
is the proper Caufe of it ; For Love^ as St. ^ohn 
tells us, is of God^ and every one that Loveth, is Born 
of Gcdy and knoTveth God, i Eph. 4. 7. and Sc. Taul 
more difiinclly ^ The Love of God is jhed abroad in our 
Hearts^ hj the Holy Ghofi which is given unto us, 
Rom. V. ^. This Duty therefore of Love is faid to be 
out of a Pure Heart, be caufe it is never kindled in aa^ 
Impure One, but is feated only in fuch a Heart as is 
Purified by a Divine Faith both from the Errors of 
Fallhood, and the CjrriTptions of Sin, in fuch a Heart 
only as is purify 'd by a Divine Hope of, and an Ardent 
Third after Immortality, from all inordinate Defires of 
Worldly Enjoy rrents. The Flames of Divine Love 
can be no more enkindled in an Earthly, Senfual, and 
an Impure Sou), than we can kindle a Fire from Wood 
that is Green, and full of Moifture, 

From this Notion then of Love and Charity, it will 
rcqviire no Great Difcernment to diflinguifh the True 
Notion and Nature of it from that which is falfe and 
pretended only. For let a Man difcourfc never lo 
Seraphically of God and Heavenly Things, let him 
Pray alio with the Uimoft Ardency and Afleci:ion, let 
him Bewail his Sins with all the Outward Signs of 
Sorrow and Ref e.ntance, let him give himfelf up to 
Faulagj Self-denial, Cbaiiry, and the Exercife of many 
ochir Good Works , And yet at the Lme limej if he 
retain any Immoderate Deiires, i[ he hai hour any Im- 
pure Thoughts; if he be puff'd up with too High a 


The Art of Dying well. lo 

Conceit of his own InimitableSelf ; If he has not thatHear- 
ty Love and Concern for his Neighbour, and his Well- 
fare as he ought to have, This Man is not infiam'd 
with this Heavenly Fire of Love and Charity, but is 
in Reality a Downright Hypocrite, and makes only a 
Shew and an Appearance of it. The Apoftle therefore, 
fpeaking of that Obedience, and the Terms of ir, which 
the Gofpel requires of every Chriftian, allures us with 
great Wifdom, That the End of the Ccmmamlment is 
Charity otij: of a fure Heart, of a good ConfciencCy and 
Faith unfeigved. The whole Art of Dying Well confifts 
in the Knowledge of this Precept, and a condant Ob- 
fervation of it thro' the whole Gourfe cf our Life. 


The Fourth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death 
fr. That a Man obferve, in a Particular 
- M^inner, the Three Evangelical Precepts. 

THo' what has already been Giid of Faith, Hop9 
and Charity, may feem fufficlent to dire6l a Man 
in the Paths of Holy Living and Dying, Yet that he 
may exereife thofe Graces with more Eaf*, and to 
Higher Degrees of Perfedlon, our Blefled Saviour hss 
been p]ea(J.d in his Gf.fbel to prefcribc to us a Particu- 
lar Obedience of Three other Precepts. Let your 
Loyns, fays he, be girded about, and your Lights btirnijig. 
And ye yourfelves lik^e unto Men that wait for the Lord, 
when he will return f rom the Wedding, that when he cof 
njeth and knocketh, they way open u7tto him immediately. 
BleJJed are thofe Servants ^ whom the Lord when he 
sometb Jhall find watching, Luke xii. 3j, 36, 37. 

P ^ This 

20 7he Art of Dying well 

This Parable may be explain'd two Ways; ^nd may 
relate either to that Preparation which is neceflary for ^ 
ev'ry Man to meet our Lord with at his Second Coming I 
to Judge the World, or otherwife his Coming to us in that 
Particular Judgment which fiiall be ar the Day of ev'ry 
Man's Death. This latter Explication of the Words, 
which is the fame with that of 5^. Gregory in his 13 th 
Komily on the fame Place, 1 (hall principally fellow, 
as being moft Applicable to the Dtfign in hand; For 
the Expe£):ation of the Day of Judgment do's more im- 
mediately relate to thofe Men, who (hall then be found 
Alive upon the Earth ; Whereas it is certain, that our 
Saviour gave thefe Dire6lions to his Apoftles then living, 
and to their Succeffours, who liv'd many Ages from the 
Lail Day. Befides; our Lord alTures us, 7hat before 
his Second Coming, There Jhall he Signs in the Sun^ and 
in the Moon^ and in the Star 5^ and on the Earth, Difirefs of 
Nations^ Mens Hearts failing them for Fear, and Expe* 
Batton of thofe JhingSy whtcb jl)all come upon the Earth, 
But as to the Coming of our Lord to the Particular 
Judgment of every Man at the Day of his Death, there 
is no exprefs Mention made in Scripture of any Signs 
that fliall precede it ; And to this Second Coming of our 
Saviour do thofe Words fo often mention'd in Scripture 
particularly relate, where it is faid, That cur Lord jhall 
come a Thief in the ISHght, i.e. When he isleaftex- 

It v/ill therefore be of general Service to every Chri- 
ftian, if I briefly Explain this Parable, that we may un- 
derillnd, and be convincd, That a Due Preparation 
fcr Death is a Bufineft of the Greateft Neceffity and Im- 
portance to us. There are Three Duties prefcribed in 
\he Words abovemention d. The Firft is ; That our 


The Art of Dying well. 21 

Loyns be girded about. The Second, That we have 
our Lamps burning. The Third Duty is ; That we 
Watch, and be like Men that wait for the Lord, as 
not knowing the Time of his Coming. 

The Firft Thing prefcribed in thefe Words is ; That 
we have our Loyns girded ahoHt, The Literal Sente of 
which Words is plainly this * That we be always rea- 
dy and prepar'd to meet our Lord, when by Death he 
Ciall call us to a Particular Judgment. The Simili- 
tude of having our Loyns girded ahout^^ is taken from 
the Cu(fom of the Eaftern Nations who wore long Gar* 
ments, fo that when they were inclin'd to walk with 
more Speed, they tucked up their Garments round their 
Wafte, that the Length of them might not retard them 
in their Journey, Hence it was, that 'tis fiid of the 
Angel Raphael, when he came to accompany Tohias the 
younger, ThenToh'iasgoing forth found a young Man in 
Jhining Garments Banding before him, girt ahcukhis loyns ^ 
and frefaredfor a Journey. Tob. v. To this Cuftom of 
*lhe People of the Eafl:, Sr. Tcter alludes in that Exhor- 
tation, I Efh, i. i^t Wherefore gird up the loyns of your 
minds^ he fober^ and hofe to the end. And St. Taul to 
the fame Purpofe, Efh, vi, 14. Stand therefore, having 
your loyns girt about with truth ^ and having on the breajl" 
flate of right eoufnefs* 

To have our Loyns girt does farther fignify the Vir- 
tue of Chaftity, as it does fecondly a Promptitude and 
Willingnefs to meet our Saviour not only in our own 
Particular Judgment, but at the General Judgment of 
all Mankind. Sr. Baftl in his Expofition of the 1 5ih of 
Jfaiah^ St. Jufiin in his Book of Continency^ and St, 
Qregory in his 13th Homily upon the EvangeliBs^ ex- 
plain the Words in the Firft Senfe. And indeed not 


2i The An of D/mg well. 

wuhouiReafon ; for of all thtViciousHabits andAffedlions 
of the Mind, ihere is not any which fo much incumbers 
us in our Chriftian Courfe as an Impure and Carnal 
Converfation j And on the contrary, that nothing con- 
duces more to out Following cur Saviour^ than Chaftity 
and Modcfty, and a Freedom from all Manner of Con- 
cupifcence. We read in the Revelations, That the Vir- 
gins followed the lamb v^hit her fo ever he went, chap, xlv, 
verC 4. and St, Vaul 1 Cor. vii. z^. He that is un- 
married careth for the things that belong to the Lord, how 
he may fleafe the Lord : But he that is married careth fr 
the things of the world, that he may pleafe his wife. 

The other Expofition of the Words, which retrains 
them not only to the Virtue of Continency, but extends 
the Senfc of them to a Promptitude and Willingnefs to 
meet our Saviour, both at the Hour of Death, and in 
the Day of Judgment, u the Opinion of St. Cyprian in 
his Exhortation to Martyrdom^ and is agreeable to the 
Senfe in which ail Commenrators upon St. Luke have 
explained them. The Meaning therefore of this Evan- 
^gelical Command is this ; That even the moft Com- 
mendable and Nece^^ary Employments cf Life ftiould 
never fo far engage our Time and our Thoughts, as to 
take us off from the more Important Confideration of 
meeting our Saviour, when he (hall Summon us by 
Death to give an Account, not only of our Work?, but 
alio of every Idle, and Unprofitable Word and Thought. 
Unhappy beyond Exprtflion wili the Condition of that 
Man be v/ho is unprovided for his Lall Hour. Who, 
being wholy taken up with the Pleafures and Gaiety^and 
Concernments of Life, has never enter'd into himfelf, 
ror taken any Account how Matters ftand between 
.Qod and his Soul, feldom confiderd with himfelf, hov/ 


Thd Art of Vying well 2^ 

ofccn he has misbehav'd in Thought, in Word, in 
Deed j and fcarce ever employ'd a ferious Hour in refle- 
cting on the Nature and Circumftances of Sin ; As whe- 
ther it were comniltted thro* Inadvertency or Weak- 
neli, thro* Ignorance or Mifunderftanding, or, which 
is the Higheft Aggravation of all, thro' WillfulneG and 
Premeditation. Can any Man, in fo unhappy a State 
as this, prefurae to go out to meet his Saviour ? or ra- 
ther under the Preflure and Load of his own Guilt (hall 
he not Ue down in Silence, in Defpair, and in Con- 
fufion of Thought ? What Anfwer can he make to the 
Sovereign Judge of the World at the laft Summons ? 
What Obedience have you paid to my Commandst 
wherein I admonifti'd you, faying, Seek ye firfi the 
Kingdom of God, and his Right eoufnefs, and all thefe things 
[hall he added unto you. Mar. vi. 33. Why did not thoft: 
Words, fb often read to you by your Minifter in the 
Publick Congregation make a Deeper Impreffion upon 
70U ? Martha^ Martha^ thou art careful about many 
things ^ hut one thing is needful. And Mary ha'h chosen 
that good fart which fljall not he taken away from her* 
Luke X. 41 , 41. If 1 blam'd the Care and Concern of 
Martha in being fb Sollicitous to pleafe me, do you 
think I can be any way pleas'd with that Worldly Sol- 
licitude with which you amafs to your felf unneceffary 
Riches ? Is it any Delight to me to (ee you aiming ac 
Honours. and Preferments ? Do I take any Satisfadion 
in obierving you to gratify your Corrupt Appetites and 
Inclinations, and at the fame- rime to be wholy regard- 
lefs of the Kingdom of Heaven, of more Solid Plea- 
fures, and more Lafting Enjoyments. 

But to proceed to the other Duty of a Dil5r][-nt and 
Faithful Servant^ fptcify'd in thcTe^Wardsg d^ni yc:ir 
Ligh's b ^rmng, Ic 

14 The An of Djing i^ell. 

It is not fufBcient to a Faithful Servant, that his 
Loyns arc girt about, that he may run wirh more Speed 
and Freedom to meet his Lord, but 'tis required alfo, 
that his Lamp be burning to light him in his Way, when 
his Saviour (hall return from the Wedding Feaft. The 
Word Lamp in this Place fig nifies the Law of God, 
which fliews us the Good Way wherein we (hould walk. 
Thy Wordy fays David^ is a Lanthorn unto my Feet^ and 
a Light unto my 'Baths, And the Wife Solomon ex- 
prefles himfelf to the fame Purpofe, Thy La'w^ fays he, 
is a Light and aLamp,?,2ii Now this Light,if it be 
left in a Houfe or in a Chamber, will not dire6l usin the 
Way ; No, we muft bear it before us in our Hands for 
that Purpofe. There are many Men who throughly 
underftand the Nature and Properties and Obligations 
both of Human and Divine Laws, and yet becaufe they 
Guide not themfelves by thofe Lights, and apply not 
their Knowledge to their Works, either omit fome ne- 
celTary Duties, or commit fome Heinous Sins. And 
what can be the Reafon that Men of Approved Senfe and 
Diftinguifli'd Judgment fliould a6k, in this Manner ? 
Why the Reafon is Plain 5 Becaufe when they are doing 
this or that A£tion, they never confub the Law of God, 
or compare it with that Rule, but are hurry'd away 
with Paffion, or are led afide by Lull, or Humour, or 
Intereft, or other Inordinate Affedlions of the Mind. 
If Royal Davidj when he faw Bathjheha^ had given 
himfelf Time to confider the Obligation of the Tenth 
Commandment, he had not fo imprudently fallen into 
the Great Sin of Adultery ; but the Beamy of the W6- 
man, his own Concupilcence, and want of Confidera- 
tion led him into the Presumptuous Sin. Ic is a Duty 
therefore incumbent upon every Man,to fee that hisLamp 

The Art of T>ying well. 25 
be Burning in his Hands, that it be no Way Darkn'd 
in being puc under a Buflicl, or wholly Exringuifh d 
by his Own Inconfideration, but that in Obedience 
to the Law of God, He Exercife himfelf in that Law^ 
Day and Nighty Pfal. li 2. That he may fay with 
the ^me Perlon, Thou hafi chargd that v^e jliall diligently 
keep thy Commandments. O ! that wy V/ajs were fo 
Jire^ed, that I might keep thy Commandments, Pfal. 1 1 9. 
For he that carries the Light of God fleadily before 
his Eyes, will furely meet him with Safety at hi* 

The Third and Lad Duty of a Faithful Servant re* 
mains now to be confider'd ; and that is a Conftant 
Watchfulnefs for the Coming of our Lord, by Reafbn 
of the Uncertainty of it, Blejjed are thofe Servants 
whom the Lord when he comethy jhail find fo doing. 
It is a great Argument of the Wifdom of Divine Prow- 
dence, that He hath not prcfcrib'd any Certain Period 
of Human Life, that Men might not employ the 
Greateft Part of their Time in Luxury and Fullnefs, 
in Merriment and Pleafure, or any of the Gay Di- 
verfions of Life, and when Death fhall make its near 
Approaches to them, then to prepare themfelves for 
Immortality. The Uncertainty of Human Lifc^ 1 fay, 
is a Great Inftance of the Divine Wifdom ^ and it is 
a firong Obligation for every Man to be upon his 
Guard, when he fhall obferve that fome Dye even 
before they are Born, others in their very Birth ; 
that fbme tho* they may arrive to a good Old Age, 
yet that others dye in the Bloom and Vigour of 
Youth 5 That others again, tho' they gently go off by 
a Leifurable Decay, yet that there are fome who are 
Ciatch'd away at once. To reprefent the uncertainty 

e of 

2 6 Tie Art of Trying well. 

of Death as a Motive for our Watchfulnefs, our Lord 
affures us in his Gjfpel ^ That if he Jhall come in the 
Second Watch, or come in the Third Watch ^ Bleffed are 
thofe Servants, And know ye this, that if the good 
Mm of the Houfe had known what Hour the Thief 
would come^ he would have watch* d^ and not have 
fufferd his Houfe to he hrohn uf. Be ye therefore read) ; 
hecaufeje know not the Hour when the Son of Man cometh^ 
Luke 12. 38, 39, 40. Of what great Importance it is, 
that Men Ihould throughly confider the Uncertainty 
of our Saviours Coming, whether to every Man in 
Particular at the Time of his Death, or at the Laft 
General Judgment, is Evident from hencej That there 
is no Dury more Frequently inculcated in Scripture, 
than that of PVatchfulnefs ; And the Similitude of a 
Thief, who cometh in the Night, is no Ie6 often pro- ' 
pos'd to us as an Incentive to that Duty. The Ex- 
hortation, Watch ye^ is more than once repeated in the 
Gofpels of St. Matthew y Sr. Mark, and St. Luke. 
And the Similitude of a Thief h fet before us^ not only 
in all the pofpels^ but alfo in the Efiftles and RevC" 

How does this Dodrine upbraid the Scandalous 
Ignorance and Carelcfriefs, not to fay the Folly and 
Madnels of the Greateft Part of Mankind, who iho* 
fo often admonifh'd by the Spirit of Truth, who 
cannot Lye, to Prepare ihemfelves for Death, as a 
Bufinels of the Higheft Importance, and the Greateft 
Difficulty, upon which their Everlafting Happinefs or 
Mifery does wholly depend 5 yet how Few are there 
who attend to this Voice, or rather this Awakning 
p^U of the Spirit of Go^? 


The Art ofDftng well. 27 

But perhaps It may be Objected by fbme 5 Where'? 
the Neceffity of fuch a Conftant Watchfulncfs, in 
Order to Prepare us for Death ? There are no Me^ns 
fo Prevailing for this Purpofe, as a Serious Enquiry in-* 
to, and Thorough Examination of our Confciences, 
In Anfwer to which, it may be Reply'd , That if this 
Enquiry into the State and Condition of our Souls 
be Sincere, Univerfal, and Conftant, it is Nothing 
clfe but the Duty of Watchfulncfs here prefcrib'd, 
or at leafl; the Confequence of it. But unlefs this Exa- 
mination be Conftant, and thus Qualify'd, it will not 
Reach the Cafe of thofe Men who are fnatch'd away 
by a fudden Death, or of thofe who are feiz*d with a 
Frenzy, or a Delirium, nor of thofe Perfons, who by 
Reafon of the Acutenefs of their Pains, and the Vio- 
lence of the Difteroper, are wholly Incapable of ma- 
king fuch an Enquiry; much lefs of thofe who are the 
Caufes of their own Death, or who Dye in their Sins . 
which is the Cafe of thofe who are flain in an Unjuft 
War, or in Duelling, or are killed in the Commiffion 
of any other hdi of Injuftice whatfbevcr. 

In Order to a Prudent and Religious Avoidance of 
fuch a State as this, there is nothing fo highly Con« 
ducive as not only a Ger.eral Enquiry into, but aifo 
a Particular Examination of our Confciences, at 
the leaft: Twice in the Day, t?/2S. Morning and Even- 
ing. It is neceffary that we Look into ourfelves, and 
fee how the Account ftands between God and our 
Souls ; That we confider the Ends, Caufes, and Cir- 
cumftances of all our Thoughts^ Words, A6l:ions, 
Defires, and Refolutions, the Day before. To Obferve 
with ourfelves where we went out of the Way ; and 
in that Cafe to make what Amends we can by 

E 2 Rtfti- 

28 T^he Art of Dying well. 

Reftitution or Amendment, To this Purpofe it is Re- 
quifite, that Men ftiould in the moft Humble Manner, 
mplore the Mercy of God in beftowing on them the 
Grace of Contrition, that they may Refled within 
themfelves upon the Grievoufnefs of thole Crimes they 
have committed ; Let them throw off with Deteftation 
their Favourite Sins; Let them aggravate their Offences 
from a Confideration of the Dignity oi Him whom 
they have fmn'd againft ; Let them conlider that 
Man, who is but a Worm, has tranfgrefs'd ?gainft an 
Omnipotent God, and that he who is at beft but an 
Unprofitable Servant^ has provok'd the Great Lord and 
Creator both of Heaven and Earth. Let them then 
exprefs their Repentance with all the Outward Signs o£ 
Indignation and Refentment againft themfelves ; and 
and let them Conclude the whole Affair with the 
moft Firm and Steady Refolutions never to Repeat 
their Crimes againft fo Gracious and Merciful a Father. 
After an Examination fo Devout and fo Solemn as 
This Every Morning and Evening, or at leaft 
Once a Day^ 'twill be impoffible that any Man 
(hould either Live or Dye in a Sinful State, or be 
any Way Surprii'd by the Suddennefs of his Di- 
ftemper, or be Unprovided againft any Indifpofition, 
or Unforefeen Accident that may befal him. 


The An of Bying well. 2^ 


The Fifth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death 
is This That we do not Look upon the 
Riches which God has given us as Properly 
our own, but to be us'd only to thofe good 
Purpofes for which he gave them. 

WHAT I fliall fay in this Chapter fliall be in 
Confutation of a very Prevailing Errour 
among fome Men, and which indeed is a very great 
Hindrance both to a Good Life, and a Happy Death j and 
that is This ; That according to their Judgment, the 
Riches and Abundance which Men poflefs h Properly ar^ 
and Simply their own ^ becaufe they hold them by a Jufl: ^ 
and Legal Title j and that for this Reafon they are at 
Liberty to beftow, or diftribute, or lay em out as 
they pleafej and that no one has Authority to call 
them in Qlieftion, How or in what Manner they fpend 
them. Why all this Equipage and Appearance ? Why 
are you fo High in your Entertainments ? Why do you 
lavifli your Money fo Profulely in Games, and Spores, and 
other Expenfive Diverfions ? The Anfwer of thefe Men 
to this Kind of Admonition is, generally Speaking, a 
little Rough and Uncourtly, Concern yourfdf -witb 
your own Affair Is it not Lawful for me to do what 
I will with my own ? Now This, Queftionlefs, is a 
very Grievous and a very Deflru£live Errour. Fcr 
tho' it be confefs'd, That every Man has a Legal 
Right to what he poflefles, and thai no Man with- 

JO The Art of Dftng well 

out Injury and Injuftice can Claim or Deprive him 
of that Right ^ yet if we confider the Dependency 
of every Man upon God, and the Subferviency of 
• the Creature to the Creator, Men cannot fo pro- 
perly be call'd real Proprietors of what they have, 
as Managers and Stewards for Him ; as will Appear 
from many Reafons. 

The R >yal TfalmiB Is very exprefs to this Purpofe; 
The Earth is the Lords ^ and, all that is therein j the 
Compafs of the Worlds and they that dwell therein, 
Pfal. xxiv. I • And again in another Place, / know all 
the Fowls upon the Mountains^ and the Wtld Beafts of 
the Field are in my Sight, If I he Hungry^ I will not 
tdl thee ; for the whole World is mine^ and all that is 
therein^ Pfal. 1. ii, 12. When Bavid offer'd to God 
for the Building of the Temple, Three Thoufand 
Talents of Gold, and Seven Thoufand Talents of Re- 
filled Silver, and Marbk'Stone in abundance ^ and 
when the Fathers and Princes of the Tribes, after the 
Example of their King, had ofiFer'd Five Thoufand 
Talents of Gold, Ten Thoufand Talents of Silver, 
and Eighteen Thoufaad Talents of Brafsj and a Hun- 
dred Thoufand Talents of Iron, he makes this Ack- 
nowledgment to God j Thine ^ O Lord, is the Great- 
nefs, and the Fower^ and the Glory, and the ViBory^ 
and the Majefiy ; For all that is in the Heaven and 
in the Earth is thine 5 thine is the Kingdom O Lord, 
find thou art exalted as Head above alL Both Riches 
and Honour come of Tkee^ and Thou Reignefi over all^ 
6cc. But who am I, and what is my Pecfle, that we 
[hould he able to Offer fo willingly after this Sort ? For 
all Things come of Thee, and of J bine have we given 
jUe^ I Chron. xxix. II, 12, I4» And to confirm 


7he Art of Dying well 5 1 

this beyond the Poflibiliry of a Denial, we have the 
Teftimony of God himfclf j The Stiver is M'me^ and 
the Gold is Mine, faith the Lord of Hofls, Hagg. ii. 8, 
The Parable of the Unjuji Steward^ is a farther 
Confirmation of this Truth. There yvas a certain Rich 
Mah^ frjs our Saviour^ who had a Steward; and 
the fame was accufed mto him, that he had wafied his 
Goods, And he calfd him, and faid mto him, How is 
it that I hear this of thee ? Give an Account of thy 
Stewardjhip ; for thou mayeft he no longer Steward, By 
the Rich Man here mention'd, no doubt of ir, is 
meant God ; by the Steward, according to the Origi- 
nal, is under flood a Man of fome Subftance ; St. Auftin^ 
Sr. Chrifo^om, and almoft all the Fathers interpret the 
Word in this Senfe This then is an unqueftionable 
Truth, as unqueftionable as the Gofpel itklf. That 
whatfbever any Man Pcflefles, tho' Humanly Speaking 
lie has never fo Juft a Right to it, yet that in Fa^l", 
he is no other than a Steward or Difpenfer of God s 
JBounty, and that he is accountable to his Mafter for 
ihe leafl Misapplication of it. And this Aflertion is 
/entirely agreeable to the whole Defign and Tenor of 
this Parable ; in which it evidently appears, that if a 
Man Misbehaves himfelf and Afls Unjuftly, the Lord 
^^of the Houfhold, either by Poverty or Death, can 
remove him from his Scewardflhip ; which is the Genuine 
'Senfe of thole Words, Give an Account of thy Stev^ardm 
^ip, for thou maffi he no longer Steward, Many Rea- 
ions may be given why God fb merimes thinks fie 
%o remove .Rich Men from their Srewardfhip, by Re- 
ducing them to a Stare of Poverty ; And indeed the 
Loffes which RJch Men SuflFer either by I^and or 
vj^atefj, by Shipwrecks and Inundations, by Robbery 

32 The Art ofDfing well. 

or Fire, by too much Rain, or too much Want of \i% 
are only fo many Voices from God, and Exprefs De- 
clarations as it were of this Heavy Judgment ; Thou 
Jhak be no longer Steward, 

The Advice which is added in the Conclufion of 
this Parable, M^h to yourfelves Friends of the Mam" 
mon of Unrtgbteoufnefs ; that when ye failj they may re- 
ceive you into everlafiing Hahitattons, Verf 9. is not 
intended as an Exhortation to Rich Men to be Chari- 
table to others out of what is unjuftly gotten • but in 
Reality, that they (hould Exercife rheir Charity with 
thofe Things, which are not really the True Riches, 
but are only Improperly cali'd fo. This Explanation 
of the Words is confirm'd by what follows, where 
our Saviour fays ; If ye have not been faithful in the 
unrighteous Mammon^ who will commit to your Truft the 
True Richest Verf. 11. i, e. If you have not made a 
Right life of Worldly Treafures, who will commit to 
your Care the True Riches ? /. e, the Riches of God*s 
Grace •> and thofe Valuable Qualifications which Enno- 
ble and Enrich the Mind. Thefe Words are thus Ex- 
plained both by St. Cyfrian in his Difcourfe of Charity 
and Good Works^ and St. Aujtin in his Second Book 
of Evangelical ^efiions, where he Expounds This 
Mammon of Unrighteoufnefs , to mean only thofe 
Riches which Ignorant and Worldly Men miftake 
for fuch ; when at the fame Time, Men of Better 
Judgment, and more Holinefs, look upon thofe Riches 
with Cbldnefs and Indifference, and Efteem the Gifts 
and Graces of the Holy Spirit to be the only True 

7he Art of Dying well. $3 
I (hall give but one Inftance more to this Purpofe 
and that is in the Chapter before us, and which indeed 
may belook'd upon as a Commentary upon the Parable 
of The Unjufi Steward, There ivas a certain Rich Man^ 
fays our Saviour ^ who v)as clotFd in Purple and fine Linnen^ 
and fared [umptuoujly every Daj, And there was a cert am 
Beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his Gate, full of 
Sores. And defiring to he fed with the Crumbs which fell 
from the Rich Mans Table ; Moreover the Dogs came and 
licked his ,^ores ; and it came to fafs that the Beggar dyed^ 
and was carried by the Angels into Abraham's B<fomi 
The Rich Man alfo dyed, and was buried. And in Hi II 
he lift up his EyeSy being in Torment s^ &c. Verf! 19, 
2.0, ai, 22, ag. 

This Rich Glutton, quefiionlef?, was one of thofe 
Perfbns, who look'd upon themfelves as Abfolute Pro- 
prietors of their own Riches, and not as the Difpenfers 
or Stewards of God : And therefore was of Opinion, 
that to Feaft High, and Drefs Sumptuoufly, to follow 
his Sports and Recreations Inceflantly, and to divert 
himfelf witl^ Plays and Mafquerades, were no Offences 
againft God, tho' he was no Way Beneficial to the 
World. This is the Language of fuch Men j I 
fpend nothing hut what is my own. I do no Injury to 
any Man, I Obey where God has Commanded m,c- 
/ am no Blaffhemer, I was never Guilty of Verjury. 
^* 1 amy to the utmofi. Dutiful to my Parents, 1 am 
" Innocent as to any Charge of Murder^ Adultery^ 
Thefty Bearing Falfe Witnefs, or Defiring any Thing 
that is my ISJeighbours.'* Now if this Cafe be 
rightly Stated, how came it to pafs that we read, 
that The Rich Man lift up his Eyes in Hell, being in 
yo^ent^ Why 5 this can be accounted for no other 
^. F Way 

54 -^yf of Dyiftg well. 

Way than This, That this Man probably in fome 
Ihftances was Negatively Good ; and perhaps with Re* 
fpe£J: to God, and hirafelf, had pprform'd fome Duties 
of a Pofitive Nature; yet that he had not employ'd 
his Subftance to the Support and Maintenance of 
the Poor and Needy, and the Publick Benefit of 
Mankind. It muft be confefs'd therefqre to be g 
General Miftake to fay; That every Man has an 
Abfblute Right to that which is his Own ; and Con- 
fequently, that he is at Liberty to difpofe of it as 
he Pleafes. For if there had been any Thing more 
Remarkable in the Behaviour of this Man, than his 
Want of Charity, in all Probability it had been Re- 
corded in this Parable for the Inftruclion of Mankind ; 
but fince nothing of that Kind is mentioned, the 
whole Parable as to the Principal Dehgn of it, muft be 
interpreted to Point out to us this Momentous Truth j 
That to go fo far in our Ex fences in Supporting thg 
TriJe and Luxury of Lije^ as to unquahfy ourfelves to 
he any Way Charitable and Beneficent to the Toort 
v>ill entitle us to the mofi Dreadful Funijhments in a /«- 
tare State, 

This therefore is another Rule Preparatory to a 
Happy Death ; That a Man Serioufly and Frequently 
confider with hlmfclF ; That he muft certainly give an 
Account to God of all his Extravagance, Superflui- 
ties, nay even his unneceflary Expences ^ Becaufe that 
by thefe Means he does great Injury to his Diftrefs'd 
Brother, and Renders himfclf IncapabJe of being any 
Ways ufeful to the World. The Cries of the Sick and 
Needy, even to the Day of Judgment, will reach to 
Heaven againft him, and he will receive his Reward 
with the Rich Man in the Gofpel, 

The Art of Dying well 55 

C H A P. VL 

The Sixth Kale Preparatory to the Art of 
Dying well is ; To obferve conftantly the 
Three Moral Virtues ^ viz, Piety towcirds 
God, Jujlice towards our Neighbour, and 
Temperance towards Ourfelves, 

A Ltho' the Three Theological Graces of Faiih^ 
^ Hopy and Charity^ are a fhort Summary oF the 
whole Body of the Chrlftian Religion, and Com- 
prehend the whole Art of Living and Dpng weU , yet 
the Divine Spirit, the Fir ft Author and Revealer of the 
Word of God, for the more Perfedt Underftanding of 
this Art, hath been pleas'd to add alfo Three Moral 
Virtues, which ate of Great Service and Advantage to 
that Purpofe. Thefe Virtues, in fiiort, are Tempe- 
rance^ Juftice, and Godlmfs j of all which Sr. Vaul in 
his Epiflle to Titusy thus Expreffes himfelf in this Me- 
morable wSentence, The Grace of God that hringeth Salva- 
tion^ hath appeared to all Men ; Teaching us, that denying 
Ungodlinefs and worldly Luftspve jhould live Soberly ^Righte- 
eujly, and Godly in this pre fent World, Tit. 2. 11, 12. In 
this Pafi'age we have alfo briefly compriz'd the whole 
Chfiftian Law. Flee from Evil, and do the Thirgi 
that is Good, fays the Royal Prophet. Now the Na» 
ture of Evil does principally Confift in thefe Two 
Things j Firft in our Turning away from God, by 
withdrawing that Obedience and Adoration we owe 
to him ; And, Secondly, in our Turning to his Crea^ 
tures, and fetting our whole Heart and Affedlions upon 
them. This Notion of the Nature of Evi'3 is altoge-' 
• F ^ thee 

SI 6 Ihe Art of Bfing well 

ther agreeable to what is exprefs'd by the Prophet 
Jeremiahy Mj Teople have committed Two Evils ; they 
have forfaken me the Fountain of Living Water and 
hew' J them out Cifterns^ brok^en Ctfierm that can hold 
no Watery Chap. ii. 13. Now the Duty of every 
Man who would avoid both thefe Kinds of Evil, is to 
Deny Ungodlinefs and IVorldly Lups, For Ungodlinefs 
Turns us from our Creator, and all Worldly Lufts 
Terminare in the Creature. And as to what relates 
to the Pradice of (hac which is Good, a Man may then 
be (aid to Live up to the Terms of theGofpel Obedience, 
when he Walks Soberly, Righteoufly, and Godly in 
this prcftnt World j that is when he Pra6lices the Ne- 
ctffjry Duties of Temferance^ Jufiice^ and Holine[s, 

But to enlarge farther on fo Noble and Ufeful an 
Argument j What is it which the Apoftle here under- 
jftaTids by the Word Ungodlinefs ? What does this 
import kfs than a Contrariety to all the Purity and 
Ferfe6^ion of God, a Repugnancy to his Will, and a 
Difobedience to his Commands ? Wherein, on the other 
Hand, does the Nature of Godlinefs confift ? Or how 
can we better defcribe its Excellency than by faying ; 
That 'tis a Ray of ihe Divine Spirit ; fuch a Gift and 
Difpenfation of the Holy Ghoft as difpofes us to pay to 
God that Revevencc and Worfhip as is fuitable to the 
Perfe6l:ion and Excellence of this Nature ? The firfl: 
Step to a pofitive Holinefs, and to Walk Soherlj, is to 
be Negatively Good, and to deny Ungodlinefs, or which 
is njuch to ihe fame Purpofe, to Live fo ftri£t and 
fcvere a Life, as never, fo far as Worldly Tempra- 
lions and Human Frailty will give us leave, to be 
Guilty of any Tranfgreffion v/hatfoever. But what 
Reafon is there, you'll fay, to require both thefe Duties 


The Art of Dying welt 57 

of us ? Is not one efFeflually Sufficient without the 
other ? The Anfwer is ^ That there is a Neceffity for 
Both, and that it was the Intention of the Apoftle in 
this Scripture to cxprefs to us the Univerfality of our 
Obedience, i. e. That it ought to exclude all Mixture 
of Impiety whatfoever. And indeed there was good 
Rcafon for To doing ; For how many Men may v/e ob- 
(erve in the World, who divide their Services between 
God and the Devil ? Half Saints and Half Sinners I 
Too Da/ moft Religioufly Devour, too Morrow as 
notorioufly Profane. But what an Inconfiftency in 
Pra£i:ice is here ? This is nothing lefs than to Worlhip 
God, and to Blafpheme Him, to Rtverence and 
Affront Him at the fame Time* There lays an Obliga- 
tion then upon every Man who would Live and Die 
well, not only to abftain from all Manner of Evil 
whatfoever, but to follow the Advice of St. Paul^ and 
to abftain even from the leaft Shadow and Appearance 
pf it. 

This therefore is what is next Remarkeable in the Ad-' 
vice of the Apoftle , 'viz,. That a Man fhould not only 
deny XJngodlinefs ; but that he fliould deny All Ungodli'-^ 
nefs ; ^ e. All Kinds and Degrees of it • That he fliouId 
not only keep himfelf Innocent from the more Enor* 
mous and Crying Sins, but that alfb he (hould keep ofiF 
from the Infedion of Lefler Evils ^ That he (hould take 
care not only that he give no 111 Example or Offence 
by a more Open and Publick Misbehaviour, but that al- 
ioj That he be guilty of no Private and Secret Sins. All 
the Tranfgreflions of this Laftkind, which a Man can be 
guilty of, are a Tacit Impeachment both of the Omni- 
fcience and Omniprefence of God, and do in Fa6l fup- 
po(e that he do's not fee them< 


5 8 The Art of Dying well 

I (hall now go on to the Second Moral Vertue required 
of us ^ and that is Jfufike towards Men. The Apoftle's 
Exhortation is. That Denying all worldlj tufts we (hould 
walk Righteoufly or fuftlj. And the Reafon why he en- 
joyns Men to deny in the firfl: place all Worldly Lufis, 
that is all Immoderate Love of the Things of this World> 
is this ^ That it Is next to an Impoflibilty for a Worldly 
and a Covetous Man to a6l with any Regard ro Juftice 
to Another. The Sin of Avarice and Duty of Honefty are 
Incompatible. Ic is ill trufting to the Uprightneis and 
fair-dealing of a SelUinterefted Man, who has no other 
Pretence to Juftice, than barely by Difcourfing of k, in 
order to deal unjuftly by you. 

There is no Occafion to explain to any Man, where- 
in the Nature either of Diftributive or Commutative Ju- 
ftice doth confift ; becau(e the Nature and Obliga- 
tions to thefe Duties are Obvious to the meaneft Capa- 
city. Jt is One of the Firft Principles of the Law of 
Nature, and there is no Man fo Ignorant as not to know 
it ; That fo do Juftly, is to Ghe to every Man his Due. 
This is farther enforced by Revelation; Render therefore 
to all their Due, Tribute to whom 'Tribute is due^ Cu^om 
to whom Cuftomy Fear to whom Fear^ Honour to whom 
Honour^ Rom. i 3. 7. To pay Tribute is a piece of Ju- 
ftice due to our Prince. To honour our Parents, and 
obey our Superiours is a Duty owing to them. In our 
Bargains and Contrads with each other, there ought 
to be no C szening, or Over-reaching, or Taking Ad- 
vantage of the Ignorance or Neceflity of our Brethren, 
In the Diftribution of our Charity and Publick Benefa- 
ctions the Obligations to Juftice rife higher. The In- 
tention of the Doncur, and the Merit of the Perfbn 
ought Principally to be confider'd. All the Regards of 


The Art of Dying welL 39 

Friendflbip, Relation, and Intereft ought tobs laidaCde. 
This is thiC Judgment of the Wife Man, Learn Righted 
pufnefs p that judge the Earth, and St. James lamen s the 
Unhappy Cafe of Unjuft Men in thefe Words j Behold 
$he Hire of the Labourers » which have reafd down your 
fields^ which is of you kept back by Frauds criethy and 
the Cries of them which have reaped have enter d into the 
Ears of the Lord of Sabaoth, Jam. 5'. 4, 

The next Moral Vertue to be confider'd is Sobriety^ 
or Temperance : Now all Worldly Lufts, and Inordinate 
pefires are no left Oppofite to this Vertue than they are 
to Juftice and Holinefs. A Temperate and Sober Man 
lays a Reftraint upon his Inclinations, and how Craving 
and Covetous they may be, he refblves with a ^ruc 
Chriftian Courage to mortifie and fubdue them. 

To IValk Soberly in the Scripture above cited, is not 
only to avoid the Shameful and Prevaling Sin of Drun- 
kennels, but aHo to obferve a Temperance and Moderation 
in whatfbcver we Eat alfo ; fo that a Man (hall govern 
himlclf according to the Rules of Decency and Reh'gion, 
and not according to the Unreafonable Demands of an 
Unfatiable Appetite. The Examples of the Great and 
Wealthy, in this Refpe61: have no Influence upon a So- 
ber Man, who takes the Meafures of all his Actions not 
fromaConfideration of the Quality and High Station of 
the Perfbns who a6l fo and fo, but from a Judgment of 
the Reafbnablenefs and Fitnefs of the Thing to be Done. 
TheWifdom j4gur was in nothing more Confpicuous 
than in that Petition he made to God, Give me neither 
Toverty ncr Riches ^ Feed me with Food conve?uent for 
Vte, Prov. 30. 8. And Sr. Faul exhorts all Men to the 
fame Purpofe ; Having Food and Raiment let us be there* 
mth comnt^ i Tim. 6* v. 8. The Obfervation of the 

40 T"^^ Trying well. 

Apoftlc convinc'd hinii no doubt on'r j that Riches and 
Abundance are many times top Powerful Temptations 
to Luxury and High Living. Our Bleffed Saviour who 
Was Divine Wifdom itlelf has declared that the State 
and Condition of the Poor Man, upon this Account, is 
Preferable to that of the Rich. Blejfed are ye Voor^ and 
Wo unto you that are Rich, Luke 6. 20. 24. 

That a Man's Excefles therefore, and Intemperance 
may not fly in his Face at his Laft Hour, Let him not 
follow the Inclinations .of tho(e who give themfelves up 
to Brutality and Appetite, and are fo immers'd in Flefh 
and Senfe, that they have fcarce any Relifh of any 
thing but what they See or Tafte. Whatfoever he 
expends in the Gratification of his Palate, let him Con- 
fider that this might have been lay'd out with greater 
Advantage in Private Charities and Publick Benefa- 
ctions. And that he may raife his Thoughts above 
the Pleafures of Senfe, let him look to thofe Enter- 
tainmenrs fuited to a Spiritual Appetite, fuch as neither 
Eye hath feen^ nor Ear hearJ, neither hath it enter J, 
into the Heart of Man to conceive ; Waiting for that 
bleffed Bofe^ and the glorious Af fearing of the great God, 
and our Saviour Jefus Christ, 


The Art of Dying well. 


The Seventh Ktile Preparatory to a HaPfj 
Death is This'^ That a Man maintain a 
Gonftant Intercourfe with God by Prayer. 

THE Precepts hitherto mentlon'd for The Art of 
Dying Tvell^ have been wholly deriv'd fiora a 
Confideration of the Three Theological Graces, Fatth^ 
Hope^ andf Charity : And alfo from the Three Moral 
Virtues of Godlinefsi Juflice,^ and Temperance ; I fhall 
now defcend more Particularly to a Confi deration of 
thofe Duties which are the Natural and Moral Confe- 
(]uences of thofe Virtues, and have a near Reiemblance 
to them ; and thofe are Frayer, Fafimg^ and Giving of 
Alfns, For as the Duty of Godltnefs relates ro Gad, 
That of Juftice to our Neighbour, and That of Tempe- 
ranee to ourfelves ; fo docs alfo Trayer or Devotion ^ 
which is a Religious Adl, relate alfo to God ; as does 
Alms giving^ which is an Acl: of Mercy, relate to others^ 
and Fafiing^ which is an A61 of Abfiinence, relate fo 
ourfelves. The Subje£l of Pr<2j/er has been often Treated 
of by many Learned and Devout Men. The Method 
I-fliall obferve at Prefent, as beingr the moft ufeful Way 
of Dilcouriing on that Duty, fhall be to conGder, Firft^ 
the Necefficy ard Obligation every Man has to perform 
if. Secondly y The Great Advantages of it and Thirdly ^ 
the Good Qualifications that ought to attend i:. 

Now the Neceffity of Prayer will fully Appear, if 
we confider either the Wants or Men, or the Power 
and Goodnefs of God. For altho' God by Virtue of 
His Omnifcience has a Full and Perfed Knowledge of 

G ail 

42 The Art of Dying welU 

all the Wants and Ncceffities of Mankind j yet that 
Men might not fet too fmall a Value upon his Gifts and 
Difpenfations, or live In a State of Impiety and Inde- 
vorion, or not Acknowledge their own Infufficiency or 
Dependance upon him ; I fay God, for thefe Reafbns, 
has thought fit to appoint Prayer as the Ordinary 
"Means of obrainlng any Spiritual or Temporal Blefling 
they may have Occafion for. It is therefore enjoy n'd in 
St. Lukey That Men ought always to fraj, and not to 
faint., Luke i8. i. And again Chap, xxi, 36. Watch 
ye therefore^ and pay always^ and St. Vaul to the fame 
Furpofe \ Tray -without Ceafing^ i Thcf v. 1 7. The 
Meaning of which, and other Texts of the like Form 
oi Exprellion is not that a Man fliould empk)y his 
xwhole Tirpe in lo Important a Duty, or in Truth fuch a 
Portion of ir, as would difengage him from other Ne- 
C£flary,and indeed Unavoidable BufinelJes of Life; but 
only that jie ill Duld never be Unmindful of/ the Obliga- 
tions of this Duty, that he ihould always keep himfelf 
in a right Frame and Difpofition of Mind for the Per- 
formance of it i and LafrJy, That he fhould upon all 
proper Emergencies and Occafions be ready and willing 
to ExercKe himfelf in it. This Senfe of thefe Precepts 
is eafily Juftify'd by the Example of our Saviour and 
his Apodles^ for neither of them did ever fo wholly 
addict themfelves to Prayer and Devotion, (tho' None 
did ever mere conftancly praf^ice that Duty) fo as to 
emit the Promulgation of the Gofpel, and to confirm 
the Truth of it by Signs, and Wonders, and all the 
Supernarural Evidences of a Divine Power; And yet 
they might not improperly be faid to Tray always, be- 
caufe they kept up to a dally and ccnftant Exercile 
of It, This Interpretation of thoft Texts before 

The Art ofD/ing well 45 

Cited 5s alfo vindicated by the Expofition of the Like 
-Way of Speaking in other Paffages of Scriprure. Tr^us 
' where we read, My Eyes are Ever looking w^to the 
Lord, and his fraife (hall Ever be in my Mouthy Pfal. 24. 
53. And that Text mentioned by Sr. Luke, of thofe 
who were Witneffes of our Saviour's Refurretlicn, That 
""they 'were Continually in the Temple fraijing and hlejp.r?g 
CoJj Verf. 5^3. The Words in all thefe Places import 
only a Frequency in fo doing. 

I proceed now to conlider the Great Advantages of 
Prayer and Devotion, and the Firft I (hall mention is 
This y That Prayer is a Duty Acceptable to God, and 
Entitles us to his Favour. Thou^ when thou prayefi^ 
enter into thy Clofety and when thou haft jlnit thy Door^ 
fray to thy Father which is in Secret, and thy Father 
'Tphich feeth in Secret^ [hall Reward thee openly, Mar. vi» 
6. Thefe Words, tho' they mention Secret Prayer in 
Particular, yet are they not Exclufive of Publick De- 
votion; for it is certain that our Saviour himfclt pray'd 
"in Publick, when he railed Laz^arus from the Dead 
but are only a Prohibition of a Pharifaical and Hypo- 
critical Way of Praying in Publick, to be feen of Men, 
and of that Ollentation and Vain- glory which Men 
may Affe6t by fo doing. The ExprefTion here mentioned 
\that he jhall Reward thee openly, imports ; That God 
takes Notice of the Prayers of good Men, that he 
• hears them with Pleafure, and will return them with 
*his Bounty. That Prayer is a Duty Indrum^ntal 
to the obtaining all the Bleffings of what Kind foever 
we may have Occa^fion for, St. Chrjfoflcm does very 
Elegantly fet forth in his Two Books of Vrajer, In 
comparing it by a Very proper Similitude to that Help 
and Affiftance which Men receive from the life of their 

Q 2 own 

44 7/?'^ Art ofD/ing well. 

own Hands. For as Man who is born in a State of 
Nakednefs, and Poverty, wholly uncapable to Dtfend 
himfelF, and yet in the greateft Want of Defence, lays 
under the hlghefi: Obligations to God for beftowing his 
Hands upon him, and allowing him the Proper Ufe of 
them, by which he is capable of Maintaining hiKifelf in 
all rhe Gonveniencies and NcceflTuies of Life j fo does 
he alfo, as confider'd in a Spiritual Gapaciry, and as 
Depending v/hol!y upon the Divine Provider.ce, lay 
under the ftrongeft Ties of Gratitude and Acknow- 
ledgment to Reverence and Adore that Power, which 
was plcas'd to Inftitute Prayer as the Neceflary Means of 
deriving upon him not only all Temporal, but alfb 
all Spiritual Bkffings whatfoever. 

Rjt befides this Gonfiderable Advantage of Prayer, 
in Recommending us to the Favour of God, I (hall 
brittiy take Notice of many other Inferiour Advantages 
which always attend it. As in the firft Place, There is 
no Dury which does fb much Enlighten the Minds of 
Men, and clears them from all tliat Darknefs andCon- 
fufion, which Sin and Error caft upon them, as does 
Prayer and Devotion. They had an Eye unto him^ and 
operc I'ghtndy fays the Royal FfalmiBj Pfal. xxxiv. 5'. 
In the next Place this Duty does excite in us a Holy 
Trull and Confidence in God ; for the more Frequently 
any Man Addreffes hlmfelf to God in Prayer, the 
more Reafcin he has to affijre himfelf of his Providence. 
*Tis anodier Advantage of Prayer in the Third Place, 
that it Raifes and Jncreafes in us the Love of God, and 
Provokes us to Worfhip him with High and Afpiring 
Aflicllons, with Elevated Hearts and Minds, with Holy 
and Heavenly D. fires. The 4'h Advantage of it is. 
That it Teaches us Humilicy and LowHnefs of Mind, 


The Art of Dying well. 45 

as being confcious of our own Wcaknefs and Imper- 
fections, and the Mighty Power and All- Sufficiency of 
God. For whofoever Petitions God for the Supply 
of his Wants, does in Effedl Acknowledge himfelf to 
be no better than a Beggar, and this Confideration 
throws him into a Mean Opinion of himfelf, of his Na- 
turals and of his Morals, of his Acquirements and of 
his Performances ; and makes him Cautious how he 
Approaches that Almighty' Prefence, upon whom he 
entirely » depends for every Thing he wants. Again; 
The Conftant Exercile of Prayer and Devotion begets 
at laft in a Man a Contempt of all Senfual and Workily 
Enjoyments whatfbever : For no Man who Maintains 
a Dally Intercourfe with God by Prayer, and lives in a 
Continual Meditation of Heaven and Heavenly 
Things, but muft be entirely Loft and Dead to all 
Earthly Satis fa£]:ions. In the <5th Place this Duty creates 
in us an InexprelTible Delight and Joy j and this is evi- 
dent from hence, that Hiftory affords us many Examples 
of Primitive Devotion, who continued whole Days and 
Nights in the Exercife of Devotion. In the 7th and 
laft Place, The Performance of this Duty is no lefs 
Honourable, than it is Pleafant : For what greater 
Dignity can God beftow upon Man, than thus to admit 
him into a Conference with Himfelf? What more Va- 
luibie Privilege can He be entitl'd to, than thus to 
hold Communion, 1 may fay, a Spiritual Correfpondence 
with God ? 

I proceed now idly. To confider the Good Qualifi- 
cations that ought to attend this Duty; For as our 
Saviour affures us • Ask,^ and it (hall be given jotii Seek^ 
and ye jhalifindy 5cc. For every one that asketh^ receiveth^ 
and he that feehth findeth, Luke xi. p, 10.. But that 


^6 The Art of Dying well 

the whole Succefs and Grant of our Prayers depends 
upon the Performance of fuch and fuch Conditions^ St. 
yams convinces us, when he tells us, That Men may 
ask^ and receive net j hecaujethey ask amifs^ James iv. 3, 
This therefore is the Force of the Argument ; He that 
defires of God that he may live a Holy and a Virtuous 
Life, (hall obtain his Petitions j and whofoever Defires 
of God the Dury of Perfevcrance in Well-doing, till 
the Time of his Death, fhall Confequently receive Eter- 
nal Life. That we may Practice this Duty therefore 
with a juft Regard to a Holy Life, and a Happy Death, 
1 (hall conlider thoCe Conditions and Qualifications 
which ought to Accompany our Devotions. 

Now the Firft Qualification, I (hall mention, of True 
Prayer is Faith ; or a Firm Belief and Perfwafion of 
Mind, that God will give us the Thing we ask for, 
or what He himfelf (hall judge moft Proper and Con- 
venient for u'. The firft Inftance of our Faith in this 
Refpe6t is, to Believe that God is j The Second to Be- 
lieve that he is Able and Willing to relieve us. For hw 
fljall they call on him^ in whom they have not helievd ? 
fays St. Taul^ Rom. x. 14. And St. Jamts , But let a 
Man ask in Faith, nothing Waveringy James i. 16m 
Now the Neceflity of Faith in Order to perform Rightly 
the Duty of Prayer, is not to be fb Explain'd j as that 
every Man lays under the Obligation of Believing, 
That God will Anfsvier his Petitions, in granting every 
Thing which he may Ask of him ; For God, for 
Reafbns beft known to Himfelf, does many Times 
with-hold the Favours we may Requeft of Him^ and 
that too very often in Kindnefs to us. Such a Parti- 
cular Faith as This, is not expected of the Devout 
Petitioner j but only a General Belief; That God is a 


The Art of Dying well. i^j 

moft Powerful, moft Knowing, moft Merciful, and a 
moft Holy Being ; and confequently. That he is Able 
and Willing, and that he Knows in what Manner to 
Relieve us ^ I mean in whatfoever it may be Proper for 
him to Give, or for us to Receive. This General 
Faith was What was required of the Two Blind Men» 
when they defir'd our Saviour to Heal them, Jejus faith 
unto them^ Believe ye that I am able to do this ? Mat. ix. 
28. The fame Kind of Faith it was, which David 
pray'd with, when he implor'd God in Behalf of his 
Sick Son j That he did not Pray with a Firm Belief, 
That he would grant him the Particular Thing he 
Pray'd for, is plain from his own Words j Who can tell 
whether God will he gracious to me^ that the Child may 
live ? % Sam. xii. 22. i. t. 1 am not fure that I (hall 
Prevail by my Prayers, however I will not be Want- 
ing in the Means appointed, and leave the Succefs of 
all to God. It was with fuch a Self-rcfigning Faith 
which St. Vaul pray'd, when he befought God, That 
the M^jfenger of Satan might depart from him^ x Cor. xii» 
8. It is certain in this Inftance, that St. Vaul pray'd 
with Faithy which we may reafonably conclude had 
been Falfe and III- grounded, had he Believ'd that 
God would have Anfwer'd him in That Requeft 5 
for it is plain from the Event of the whole, That he 
did not Obtain what in (6 particular a Manner he pe-' 
tition'd for. 'Tis with this General Belief, That th« 
Church Herfelf prays for All Jewsy Turksy Infidels 
and Hereticks ; and yet 'tis certain that Her Prayers are 
not always Anf«vered in Their Converfion. 

A Second Qualification necelTary for the Right Per- 
formance of the Duty of Prayer, is Hope^ or a modeft 
fruft in God, that he will Anfwer our Petitions in 


48 Th^ Art of Dying vcelL 

the very Particular Inftances we (hall Defire of hira.' 
For altho' no Man ought by a ftrong Faith, which is 
an A(5l only of the Underftanding, to Determine God as 
it were to a Particular Conceflion of whatfbever he 
may Ask ; yet I can fee no Reafon why any Man may 
not have a well grounded Hope, which is an A6lion of 
the Will, in the Goodnefs of Divine Providence, and 
a Firm Confidence that God will Return his Prayers, 
as to what may be particularly (^^^nd of him. This 
Qiialification of Prayer St. Taul requires of ^all Men> 
where he fays, Let us therefore come Boldly , i,e. with a 
Firm Truft and Confidence to the Throne of Graces 
Heb. iv. 16. And the Royal Pfalmiff introduces God 
Speaking after this Manner, / will deliver him hecaufe 
he hath trufied in me. It is for this Reafon, that when 
the Holy Scripture Mentions any Thing concerning 
Faith, it many Times fubjayns fomething of our Truft 
and Confidence in God. Hence it is that we read in 
Sr. Markt That whofoe'ver Jhall fay unto this Mount ainy 
Be thou removed^ and be thou caH into the Sea, and (Ijall 
not doubt in his Hearty but fhall believe that thofe Things 
which he faith, Jhall come to fafs, he [hall have "what* 
foever he faith^ Mark. xi. ig. 

A Third Qualification of the Du^y of Prayer is a 
General Righteoufnefs ; or fuch a Conftant Habicual 
Holinefs as is Confiftent with a State of Weaknefs and 
Temptation, 'Tis unrcafonable to fuppofe that God 
will beftow his Benefits upon thofe who are at Enmity 
with him. This is abundantly confirm'd by the Royal 
TfalmiB^ The Eyes of the Lord are over the Righteous, 
and his Ears are of en unto their Vrayers^ Pfal. xxxiv. 1 5'. 
And in another Place^ If I incline untoWickednefs in my 
Hearty the Lord will ?}ot hear me^ Pfal. Ixvi. 16, la 


The An of B/ing well. 49 
iJue l^eW'Te^ament vr have this Afllirance from our 
Lord ; If ye abide in we, and my Words abide in you^ ye 
jhall ask what ye ivill, and tt {hall be done unto yoUi 
John XV. 7. And Sr. John very fully to the fcirne Pui- 
pofe Beloved^ if our Heart condemn us not^ then hn^e 
we Confidence towards Qod, And whatfoeuer we ask^ 
we receive of hpm^ becaufe we keep his Commandments, 
I John iii. 21, 22. This was the Cafe of the Publican 
in the Gofpel. This Man went Home Juflify'd, upon 
his Addreffes to God for the Remiffion of his Sin, 
riot as a Tranfgreflor, but as a Penitent j For every 
Sinner is in a Scare of Enmity with God, but every 
Penitent is Entring into Friendfliip and Favour wi'h 
him. He that Lives in a State of Sin, dees that which 
is Difpleafmg to God, but he that begins to Repent, 
does that which is Pleafing to him j inafmuch as it is 
more Acceptable to God that a Man (hould be Concern'd 
for, and leave his Vices, than that he Ihould obftinatdy 
perfift in them. 

A Fourth Qualification neceffary for the Performance 
of this Duty of Prayer is Humility , or a Mean and 
Low Opinion of ourfelves, when we Addrcfs ourftlves 
to the Great and Ir.comprehenfible Majefty of God, 

There is nothing which Difqualifits a Man more for 
the Receipt of Human Bencfirs than a Bold and Impe- 
rious Way of Asking. ^We have no Pow^r to Com- 
mand the Favours of others, and whenever we attempt 
it, we many times fuffcr for our Prefumpiion. No'^v 
if the Cafe ftands thus with Regard to Men, how ought 
it to Rife in Proportion with Refpe^l to God ? There is ar^ 
infinite Difparity both with Relation to the Perfbn we 
ask the Favour of, and in the Favour it felf. This 
yirtue of Humility, as it relates to Prayer, confifrs 

H • ■ ^rd 

50 The Art of Dying well 

Firfl in Dlfclaimlng all Right, or Pretence of Merit to 
the Bounty and Munificence of God , And idly^ in Sub- 
mitting ourfelves entirely to his Providence, both with 
Refpe^V to the Benefic to be beftow'd upon us, and 
the Meafures of it. The Vrayer of the Humhie^ faith 
the Son of Sirach^ fiercer h the Clouds^ and will not de- 
fart, till the moB high Regard, And in the 66th of 
Ifaiahy Ver. i. To this Man will 1 look^ faith the Lcrd^ 
even to him that is of a fure and contrite Spirit^ and 
tremhleth at my Word. 

A Fifth Qualification of Prayer is a ^nOc Attention of 
Mind, or a Watchfulnefs over our Thoughts in our 
AddreiTes to God. Now this is Co NeceflTary to the Per- 
formance of this Duty, That it may not improperly 
be lerm'd the Life^ and Spirit of all Devotion • as Ex- 
cluding from thence all CarelelTnefsand Indifierence, all 
Calmnefs and Negligence ; and Implying a Strong and 
Vigorous Exercife of all the Faculties of the Soul in the 
Difcharge of ir. It was a fevere Reprehenfion, that 
of God by the Prophet Ifaiah^ This People honour eth me 
with their Lips^ hit their Heart is far from me, Chap. xxix. 
i^. Now this Dciy IVatchfulnefs and Attention of 
Mind proceeds from an Adive, Powerlul, and a Lively 
Faith- For whofbever thorowly confiders himfelf not 
only as a Creature, but alfo as a Sinful Creature, and 
Contemplales on the other Hanii the Infinite^ Adorable* 
and Inconceivable Majedy of God, it will be Im- 
pofTible for him under fb mighty a Refie6lion, not to 
be inflim'd with the Higheft Tranfports of Reverence 
and Devorlor. 

I (hall fubjoyn upon this Snbjc£^ Two Remarkable 
Paffiges taken cut of the Ancient Fathers. The Firfl: 
!3 that of Sr, Jerm^ in his Di??logue againft the Lucife^ 

The An ofD/ing well 51 
rians, 1 ought to aBuate, fays he, all mj Devotions 
with a Lively Faith ; If I were fincere in my Faith^ I 
(hould cleanfe this impure Heart of mine with ivhich I 
heboid my Lord and Saviour y I jlwuld heat my Breafi^ I 
jhould overwhelm my felf with Weepings I [houU Tremble 
and look Vale under the Senfe of my own Guilt, I jlj uld 
Trofirate my [elf at my Saviour's Feet ; Befprinkle them 
with my Tears, and wipe them with the Hair of mj 
Head^ I jhould Cling to the Foot of his Crofs, a7jd never 
t>ef^ frgm my Embraces^ till he look'd down with an Eye 
of Fity and Compajfion upon me. But alas ! In how diffe- 
rent a Manner do I behave my [elf in the Time cf my 
Devotions? How _ are my Thoughts emplo/d ^boat worldly 
Concerns ? The Tleafures, the DiverJIons, the Vrofts and 
Treferments of Life Engrofs my Soulf and I am wholly 
taken up in my RefleBions upon fuch Things^ as it were 
a Jljame even to mention. Oh, how Lifelefs is my Faith I 
How unaBive my Hope ! How weak my Atteinlon ! Where 
is that Fervency and Zeal which [hould enLven my 
Prayers ? Did the Venitent Thief upon the Crcfs ? Did 
the Three Children in the Burning Furnace ? Did the 
Trophet Daniel in the Lions Den ? Did other Devout 
Saints and Martyrs of God pray after this Manner ? To 
the fame Purpofe has St. Bernard very Seraphically ex- 
preffed himfclf in his Difcourfe on Frayer, 'Tis our Duty ^ 
fays he, at the Time of Frayer^ to enter with our Devo- 
tions the Heavenly Court, in which the Kmg of fivgs 
fits upon a Jlarry Throne, furrounded with an Innuine^ 
rable Attendance of Blejjed Spirits, With 72; hat Awe, 
with what Humble Reverence, with what Holy Fear does 
it become us to approach him, whenwefoar upon the W>?i^s 
of Devotion into his Vrefence, into the Afembly of 
Angels, f!nd tbQ Council of Juf Men Ferfe^l ? In 

Hz aU 

f}\ The An of laying well. 

our ABions therefore^ concludes he, there is a Necejjtty 
for Watchfalnefs and Attention^ hut effuially in the Ex- 
ercife of Prayer and Devotion, 

A Sixth Qualification ncceffary for the Right Perfor- 
mance of this Duty of Prayer is Ferfeverance, by which 
is underflood a Frequent Exercife of, and a Conftant 
A'tcndance upon this Duty. The Neccflity and Obli- 
gation to Terfeverance is enforc'd by Two Parables in 
Sr. Lukes Gofpel. The Firft is of the Man who went to 
his Friend at Midnight. The Requeft of the Petitioner* 
'ris true, Was but Small, and at firft but little Regarded j 
but the Importunity and Continuance of his Addrcfs 
prevaiPd at laft over the Good Nature of his Friend> 
Luke xi. 5. &c. Ttt hecaufe of his Im fort unit he will 
rife and give him as many as he needeth, Luke xi. 8. 
The Second is the Parable of the Importunate Widow* 
The Judge was prevail'd upon by her Perfeverance ; 
and tho' in other Refpedls he neither fear'd God, nor 
regarded Man, /. e. had been Guilty of Impartiality 
and Injuflice, yet by her Repeated Solicitations he 
was mov'd to give Judgment in her "Favour. The 
Jufiice and Goodnefs of God are Both of them Argu- 
nieqrs Sufficient, for a Religious Terfeverance in Prayer. 
The Gharadler given of God by St. James is. That he 
glvethto all Men Liberally^ and upbraidethnot^Ja.l^. that 
is, doth nor upbraid their Importunity, or think that they 
Cin be too Urgent in their Addrefles ro him ^ for God is 
infinitely Rich, and Merciful without Meafure. St Aufiins 
Expofirion of the laft Vtrfe of the 66th. Vfalm^ viz.* 
Praifed he God -who hath not caf out my Prayer ^ nor turnd 
his Mercy from me, is very Obfervable ; // jou are not fofar 
Wanting to ycur felf^ fays he, as to Dejififom Praying, God 
n-'illnot he fo Unmerciful tojcu^ as to Defifi fr on? Giving, 


th(^ Art of Vjiing well 



The Eighth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death 
is i To Exercife the Duty of Falling. 

IN Dilcourfing upon this Subje£l, I (hall Omit all 
unneceflary Difputes, which have been rais'd about 
it, and come clofe to fuch Confideration^ as may be Ufe- 
ful and Beneficial to Mankind ; and therefore in the 
Firft Place i (hall confider the Obligations we have to 
Religious Faftifig. 2Mj» I ftall Cake Notice of the 
Ufefulnefs and Serviceahlenefs of it to the Purpofcs of 
Religion ; and j^/Zy. I (hall confider the Manner of ii3 

Now the Obligations we have to Religious Fading, 
are Evident from the Law of God. There being no 
Pofitive Precept left by our Saviour about Fafiing^ fome 
have thence concluded it a Matter of Liberty, and 
not a Neceffary Duty. Now the Reafon why there is 
no Exprefs Precept for this Duty, is, as I conceive. 
This, *viz0. That there was no Necefficy for any Com- 
mand to enforce it, it being no lefs known and pra6ils'd 
by all Good Men, than Trayer and Giving of Alms ; 
with which it is joyned in our Saviour's Excellent Ser- 
mon upon the Mount, But thouy when thou fafiefi^ 
anoint thy Heady and iva^i thy face ; That thou appear 
not unto Mm to fafiy but unto thy Father which is in 
Secret y and thy Father which feeth in Secret Jhall reward 
thee openly, Mat." xvi. 17, 18. In this Difcourfe our 
Lord inftru61:ing his Difciples in the Principal Duties of 
the Chi ilHan Life^ It is not to be Supposed he would 
have mentior/d Fafiing, unlefs he intended that it fliould 


be look'd upon as a Chriftian Duty, 'Tis Remark- . 
able farther in this Scripture, that the Duty of Fading 
if perform'd as he had prefcrib'd, would be accepted of 
God, and openly Rewarded by him. This is alfo an 
Ev dence that 'tis a Chriftian Duty, That it has the very 
fame Promife made to the Regular Pra(5^:ice of it, as 
there is to Gi'ving of AlmSy and to Frayer. The Time 
and the Manner of its Performance, are indeed left 
to the Authority of the Church, as is that of a Private to every Man's own Prudence and Difcr^^tion, but 
the Duty it felf is an Inftitution of eternal Obligation. 
*Ti8 for this Reafon that all Nations, from Ancient 
Times, have us'd Falling as a Part of Repentance, 
and a very Prevailing Means of turning away God's 
Anger. Thus it was that the Ninevites proclaim'd a 
Fad, and put cn Sackcloth from the Greateft of them, 
even to the Lead, that they might deprecate the Wrath 
of God denounc'd againd them, if they turn'd from the 
Evil of their Ways, for which by thefe Humiliations 
they exprefs'd their Rf pentance, Jotas in. 5", 6. 

Thus much for our Obligations to Religious Fading y 
I {hall ccnfider in the next Place the Ufefulnefs and Ser- 
vicci blenefs of it to the Purpofes of Chridianity. And 
in the Fird place this Duty is highly Serviceable to the 
Great End and Defign of Chridianity, in that it Prepares 
and D fpofes a Man for Prayer, and Divine Meditation* 
Thus it was that. Mojis prepared himfelf by a Fad of 
Forty Days, for a nearer Intercourfe with God, Exod. 34, 
The fame Space of Time did Elijah Fad, to Prepare 
himftll: for a Conference with God, on Mount Horeh^ 
I Kings x*x. Thus alfb did the Prophet Daniel^ by a 
Fad of Three Weeks, Prepare himfelf to Receive the 
Divine Revelations made to him. The Church by her 


The Art of Dying well 5^ 

Authority has thought fir, for the fame Reafon, to 
let a-part fuch and fuch Days for the more Solemn 
Obfervance of this Duty, that her Members might 
more clofely attend upon the Offices of Devotion and 
Divine Meditation* The Ufcfuhiefs of Fafiing to ihele 
Holy Purpofes are largely infixed on by St. Athanafius^ 
in his Book of Virginity ; by St. Bafil in his Firft and 
Second Dtfcourfes on Fafiing j and by S . Amhrofe in his 
Treatife on the fame Subje6t : But I cannot pafs by that 
Memorable and Sublime Expreffion of St. Chryfoftom^ 
upon thi« Occafion ^ Fafiingy fays he, is the Food of the 
Soul, it fupplies it with Wings^ whenhy it afcends to Gods 
and exercifes itfelf in the Qontemplaiion of Things that are 

But tdly^ Rellgicus Fafiing is highly Serviceable to 
the Great End and Defign of Chriftianity, in That 'tis 
a very Powerful Means to fubdue and mortify the Car- 
nal Inclinations of Men. It helps to keep under or heat 
down our Bod/y and to bring it into Subje&ion, as St. 
Taul fpeaks, i Cor, ix. 27. It hath fomething in it in 
the Nature of a Penal Chaftifement, whereby we take 
a Revenge upon our felves for our Former Intempe- 
rance and Excefs. The Reafonablenefs of Crucifying 
the Fle(hy with the AffeBions anh Lufis^ to ufe the Lan- 
guage of St. Vauly will evidently appear, if we con- 
fider the Weaknefi of Human Nature in refiftiog 
Tenfiptacions, the Irregulariry of our Paflions, or the 
great Prevalency which the Pleafures of Flefli and Senfe 
have upon Mankind. To Submit both Body and Soul 
unto the Holy Inftruclion of the Word of God, St. Vaul 
thought fb Neceffary an Inftance of Chriftian Difcipline, 
that he was afraid be fhould be loft, and reje6l:ed of 
God if he omittecj it. This was the I^eafbn why he 


Thff Art of Trying wdK 
treated his Body fb feverely, Leaji when he had freach'J 
te others^ he htrnfelf ^guU become a Caft^aivayy i Cor. u. 

But ^dlj^ Religious Tafi'mg is highly Serviceable to 
the Chief End and Defign of Chriftianity, in that 'tis 
an Inftance of our Worfhip and Obedience to God. 1 
hefeech you^ fays the Apoftle, hy the Mercies of God, 
that ye frefent your Bodies a Living Sacrifice^ Holy, 
Accepahle to Gody for this is your reafonahle Service j 
that is, 'tis an A61 of Worfhip and Adoration ot him, 
^om. xii. I. Of this Particular Worfhip it is^' that St. 
Luke fpeaks, when he Records it of AnKa the Prophe- 
tefs, That Jlje departed not from the Temple^ hut ferved 
God with Fafiings and Vrayersy Night and Day^ 
Chap. ii. 37. The Great Council of Nice in her Fifth 
Cannon calls the Faft of Lent a Pure and Solemn Offer^ 
ifig of the Church to God, And St. Gregory in his i6th 
Homily hy Ohferving the Fap of Lent^ fa)is he, 7i;e 
offer the Fi^ft Fruits and Tenths of our Lives to Gcd, 
Religious Fafting in the ^rh Place is highly Service- 
able to the General End and Defign of Chriflianity, 
in that 'tis an kck of Humiliation and Repentance, by 
which we Abafe ourfelves in the Sight of God, and 
Confefs ourfclves unworthy of the Leaft of his 
Mercies, and alfo Punifh ourftlves for our fornier 

That Faftipg is an hd: of Humiliation, we learn 
froir^ the Royal PfalmiB, My Cloathing was Sach,- 
Cloathy J humbrd my Soul with Fafiings Pfal. xxiv. 13. 
The ancient Difcipline of putting on Sack Cloth, Was 
an Inftance of Humility, as it rank'd the Penitent Per- 
Ibn wich the Meanefl: of the People. Thus when 
Ahah rent his, Ckatbs, and pu: Sackcloth on his Fle(h 

The Art of Trying well. 57 
4nA Fafied^ it is faid of him, That Ahab humbled him- 
hkdhimfelf before the Lor d^ i Kings xxi. 27. 29. 

That Fafiing is alfo a Natural Expreflion of Refen- 
tmcCy it is Unneceffary to Prove. The Prophet Daniel 
calls It by the Name of Mournings Dan^ x. 2, 3. And what 
he calls Mourning, and Eating no fkafant Bread, the 
Angel afterwards in the i2th Verfe calls Chafiening 
himfelf before his God, For no Abftlnence or Concern 
for Sin can deferve ihe Name of Repentance, but 
fuch as is/iffli£live 5 which is fo much the Defign of 
Religious Fading, that they are Words of the fame 
Signification. According to that known Rule among 
the Jews^ PFherefoever the Scripture Speakj of Jffli^mg 
the Soul, it means Fafiing, 

The Next Thing to be confider'd is the Manner o^ 
Performing a Religious Fafi ; For no Duty in Chriftia- 
nicy is any Ways Acceptable to God, uolefs a proper 
Regard be had to the Circumftances of it, and efpe- 
eially as to the Manner of doing it. Now the Manner 
of Performing this Duty, may Relate either to the 
7!ime of Fading, or to the Meafures and Degrees of it. 
As to the Time of Fafiing, the Church has thought fic 
reappoint the Forty Days of Le«f,the Ember Days^ at the 
Four Seafons, the Three Rogation Days being Monday ^ 
Tuefday and Wednefday before Holy Thurfday, all the 
Fridays in the Year except Chrifimas Day, and the Evens 
or Vigils preceeding feveral Saints Days, (See the Com^ 
mon-Trayer at the End of the Calendar.) This is a very 
Ancient, and no lefs Ufeful Appointment of the Church \ 
That Men in Obedience to her Authority (hould be 
obligM to Examine and Enquire into the Spiritual 
State and Condition of their own Souls, and with 
Vrayer and fafiing deprecate thole Punilhments which 

1 either 

58 The An of Dying welU 

cither They ihemfelves in their Ptivate Capacity, or 
the State and Kingdom to which they belong, might 
juftly deferve. 

But then there is alfo a Time allow'd every Cbriftian 
for Private Fafiingy which is nothing elfe but a Vo- 
luntary Impofition, which any Man may lay upon 
himfelf, according to the Nature and Circumftances of 
Things. It is one Seafbn for a Man to Humble himfelf 
with Fafiing^ when God (hall vific him with any Tem- 
poral Puniflimenr, or Afflidion, Another Good Op- 
portunity of Fafiing is, when we are Rich and Full. It 
IS oi great Advantage to a Man to Faft in Times of 
Adverfiry ; becaufe it is a Natural Means of bringing 
him to a Senle of himfelf, and of thofe Sins which have 
Provok'd God to Putiifli him. It is of no lefs Impor- 
tance to hini in Tme of Profperity and Abundance to 
fubdue his Appetites, and to debar himlelf the Super- 
fluities of Life ; becaufe at that Time he is moft Incli- 
nable to break thro* all the Rules of Decency, Tempe- 
rance and Moderation. As to the Manner of performing 
Religious Faflingi I mean with Regard to the Meafures 
and Degrees of ir, it is neceffary that a Man be governed 
by Thefe and the Like Difcretionary Rules, viz. That 
he ought to confult his on^n Temper and Confiitution ; That 
in Confequence of this Enquiry he ought to Retrench himfelf 
accordingly ; That as he ought not by Reducing himfelf too 
LoTV^ to unqualify himfelf for the Exercifes of Devotion 5 
fo neither y on the other Hand, hy too large Comejftons to 
himfelf ought he to Launch out into too gre^t a Freedom 
in Meats and Drinkj , That Mortification and Self-denial 
ought to he the Principal Defign of Fafiing ; mdthat the 
Obfervation of That Rule only will jufiicienmi^eB him as 
tfi the ^alit) of what he ought to allow hmfelj the Time 

The Art ofDfing well 59 
of Fofhearancey and all other Circuwflances which Relate 
to a Regular Dt/charge of this Duty* 

But before 1 finifli this Chapter, it is Fitting that I 
give a Caution againft a very Common and Prevailing 
Pradlice • and that is, That in the Fafting^ Men 

would likewife AbHain from all Sports and Dlverfions, 
efpecially from all Quarrels and Difputes ; but moft of 
all, from all wanton Merriment and unreafbnable Plea- 
fure. This Pra6iice is ftverely reprimanded by the 
Prophet Jfaiah^ Behold in the Day of jour Fafi je find 
Tlea/ure ; Behold ye Fa^i for Strife and Debate^ ye Jhall 
not Faff as^ye do this Dayy to make your Toice to he heard 
on Hfght Chap. Iviii. 3, 4. This Caution is highly 
Neceffary to be obferv'd, if we would have our Falling 
to be either Acceptable to God, or Advantageous to 

C H A R IX. 

The Ninth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death 
To be Charitable to others in the 
Diftribution of our Ahiis. 

IN Difcourfing on the Subje61: of Alms-giving^ becaufe 
I know of no Better, I ftiall obferve the fame 
Method as Before. In the ifif. Place then, I (hall (hew that 
*tis a Neceffary Duty, zdly, I (hall confider the Good 
Confequences which follow fuch a Pra6lice ; And ^dly^ 
I fliall take Notice in what Manner it ought to be 
done. It was never yet made a Queftion, whether a 
Man fliould be Charitable and Beneficent to thofe who 
are in Want, How Great a Strefs is laid upon the 
Performance of it, is fufficiently Evident from hence» 

I ^ Ttel 


6o The Art of Dying well. 

That the Final Sentence which (hall be pafs'd upon 
Wicked Men at the Day of Judgment, is made to deH 
pend Principally upon our Charity, Depart from 
ye Curfed^ into Everlajling Fire, prepare J for the Devil^^ 
and his Angels ^ tor I was an Hungredy and ye gave mex 
no Meat ; I was Thir(iyy and ye gave me m Drink ; I 
was a Stranger^ and ye took me not in\ Naked and ye 
Cloathed we not ; Sick and in Frifon, and ye vifited me 
not, Mat. XXV. 41, 425 43. and a little after" it is added,' 
Inafemch as ye did it not to one of the leafi cf thefe^ ye 
did it vot unto me^ Verf. 45'. From which Scripture it 
is obfervable, that no Man is oblig'd to A61:s of Charity 
to others, but thofe who are in a Capacity, I mean 
with Relation to their Circumftances, to Perform it. 
For our Bleffed Saviour, who in all other Inflances was 
the moft Perfedl Pattern of Charity that ever liv'd 
upon the Earth, yet by Reafon of his Meannefs and Po- 
verty, we read in no Part of Scripture^ that he ever 
Contributed any Thing to the Neccflities of others, of 
what Was ftri6^Iy his own, but only was pleased to Or- 
der that a Share of what he had received from them 
might be given to the Poor. This is farther confirmed 
from that Expreffion of our Lord to Judas theTraytor* 
That thou doefiy do quickly^ John xiii. The Comment of 
his Difclples upon that Place was ^ That as Judas kept 
the Bag, he fhould, as by Diredlion from cur Lord, 
give fomething to the Poor. 

Many Eminent Divines have differ -d in their Opi- 
nions concerning this Diity, viz,. As to what Com- 
mandment of the Second Table they fhould Rank it 
under. Some have plac'd it under the 5th, others under 
the 6th, But if I may deliver my own Sentiments upon 
this Poinfj 1 muft confefs that I fee no Neceflity why it 

' ' ' fllouW 

The Art of Dying well. 61 

fliould be Compriz'd under any one of them ; becaufe, 
in my Opinion, the Moral Duties of the Second Table 
are not, at leaft fo Properly Precepts of Charity, as 
they are of Ju^ice : However, if it muft be allow'd to 
be a Particular Branch of any One, I think it ought 
to be either of the Eighth, Thou (halt not Steal-, Be- 
caufe 'tis a Kind of Theft and Robbery not to give to 
the Poor that which they have a Right to, and which 
God has appointed for them ; or el(e of the Fifth, 
Honour 4hy Father and thy Mother, For the Word 
Honour^ in this Place, does not only Imply an Awful 
Reverence of their Perfons, and an Entire Obedience to 
their Commands ; but does Import alfo, as an Inftance 
of our Duty to them, an Affiftance of them in their 
Neceflitles, and a Procurement of fuch Things as are the 
Support and Maintenance of Life. This is a Piece of 
Charity which we owe to our Parents, who according 
to St. Jerorns Expoficion on the 25th of St. Matthew^ 
are in the Higheft Senfe our Neighhours, I would only 
Remark one Thing farther, which is That the Duty 
of Charity, or Giving of Alms, is not a Negative, but a 
Pofitive Command : But among all the Moral Precepts 
of the Second Tahle^ there is but one Politive Com- 
mand, and that is the Firfi . However, I Leave every 
Man to his own Judgment in this Matter; and go on 
to confider, 

7.dly, The Good Confequences which flow from 
the Practice of this Duty. 

• And I ft. This Duty of Charity and Beneficence to 
the Poor and Needy is Highly Tleafing and Acceftahle to 
God J infomuch, as I before obferv'd, that he makes the 
Final Sentence of the Laft Judgment to depend upon 
it, Comey^ Ble£ed of wy FtUhir^ %s our Sayiour, Inhe^ 


62 Th^ Art of Dj/ing well. 

tit the Kingim prepared for you. For I was an Hungrei^ 
and ye gavie me Meaty &c» Mat. xxv. 34, } J. Nay, 
this Duty is fo highly Acceptable to God^ that he Looks 
upon all Offices of Charity and Q>rapaflion to our Poor 
Brethren, as Inftances of Kindnefi to Himlelf. Inafmucb 
as ye have done it, unto the leafi oftbefe tny Brethren^ ye 
have done it untQ me^ Vcrf. 40. 

That God is highly pleas'd with this Duty^ is far- 
ther Evident from hence ; That 'tis (b often Command- 
ed by Him. The whole Chriftian Religion is an Infti- 
tution of Love of the Love of God to Man > of Man, 
10 his Fellow- Creatures. Not only Nature prefcribes 
the Laws of Tenderneft and Compaffion, but Religion 
falls in with Her Sympathies, and Raifes the Generous 
Principles of Pity and Commiferaiion to the Higheft 
Degrees of Comelinefi and Perfection. 

That God is highly pleas'd with the Exercife of 
Charity and Beneficence is Plain in the Place, 
from hence alfo. That he has annexed the Reward of 
Eternal Happinefi to the Pra6lica of it, Bkjfed are the 
Merc'tfuly for they {hall obtain Mercy y fays our Saviour in 
his Divine Difcourfe on the Mount, Matth. v. 7, 
The Duty of Mercy is attended with fuch Peculiar 
Engagements, that it does not only Recommend a Man 
to the Favour and Compaffion of others, but Entitles 
him alfb to the Mercy and Kindnefs of God. God 
who is Himfelf infinite Beneficence and Love, has a 
Particular Regard for Thofe who imitate Him in thig 
mo ft Amiable, moft Adorable PerfeSlion. 

But xdly^ Another Good Confequence of Charity 
and Beneficence to the Diftrefs'd and AfBifted Part of 
Mankind isj That it Creates in us a Spiritual Compla- 
cency, and a Devout Confidence in God. For altho' 

I The Art of Dying well 69 

the Performance of every Good A6lion does Naturally 
raife in the Mind or Confcience of Man a Hoi/ 
Triumph and Ex^tacion^ and gives him a rea(bnable 
Aflurance of the Divine Favour, yet is there no Virtue 
which gives him (b Peculiar a Pleafure as Chriftian 
Mercy. The Satisfadlion which Springs from a Sen(e 
of having Relieved the Calamities and Sufferings of 
Mankiild is a Spiritual Feaft ; and 'tis a Refrefliment 
to our own Bowels, to have Reliev'd the Bowels of the 
Poor, is a good Gtfty unto M that give it in the 

Sight of the moB Higby Tob. iv. ii. And St. Taul 
fpeaking to the Hebrews, Chap. x. 34, ^f, has thefe 
Words, Te had Ccwfaffton of me in my Bonds j Cafi wt 

I M3if<ay therefore your Confidence which hath Great Recom- 

I pnce of Reward, Sr. Cyfrian alfb, in his Difcourfc of 
Alms'giving^ is pleas'd to call it, The Great Comfort 
mid Refreshment of the Faithful, 

k id Good Gonlequence which flows from the Exer* 

I d(e of Charity is ; That iuch a Kind CompaiHonatie 
Ton per of Mind recommends a Man to the Eftecm 
and Good-will of others. The mofl EfiFedtual Way to 
be Belov*d by others, is to Love them. •* If a Gene-; 

I " rou8 Friend relieve me with his Alms, I will Return 
*^ the Favour with my Prayers. If he is a Sinner, I 
" will pray for his Converfion j If he is a Good Man, 
I will Pray for his Perleverahcej For Both I will 
" Pray for a Sufficiency of all Worldly Bleffings; 

for the Increafe of Grace, and the Attainment of 
" Glory. In this Juftifiable Senfe will / make to mj 
" felf Friends of the Mammon of Unrigbteoujhefs, that 
when I fatly they may Receive me in Everlafiing 
[[ Habitatims. 


64 The Art of Dying vpe^li 

Fourthly^ Another Good Confequence which flows 
from a Charitable and Beneficent Temper is ; That 'ti» 
oftentimes a Religious Means of our Thriving and 
Profpering in the World, and Improving our Sub- 
ftance. I do not fay, That a Man ought to be Cha- 
ritable to others upon fo SelfiQi a Principle, but only 
that God has annex'd fuch and fuch Conditions of 
Profperity and Succefs in their Worldly Aftairs, to 
thofe who are Open-hearted and Bountiful to the 
Poor, He that hath Tity upon the Toor-j lendeth unto 
the Lord ; and that which he hath given him^ he 'will 
fayhimagaftty Proy. xix. 27. And again, Chap, xxvii. 
ay. He that giveth to the Voor^ jhall not lack: The 
Defign of the Parable of the Five Loaves and Two [mall 
Fijhes, after the Feeding of Five Thoufand, Multiplied 
into Seven Baskets full of Fragments, is to Teach us; 
That the Diftrihution of our Charity, efpecially to Good 
Men^ (hall he Rewarded with a Great Increafe. 

The Handful of Meal, and the little Oyl in a Crufc 
which the Widow of Zarephath gave to Elijah was 
increas'd into a Sufficiency for many Days, and that fo 
Eminent a Piece of Charity might be Recorded to 
Pofterity, 'twas Diftinguifh'd by a Miracle, i Kings xvii. 
16. There are many other Remarkable Inftances of 
this Kind in St. Cyprian, in his Difcourfe of Alms-giving j 
and St. Bafil in his Addrefs to the Rich^ in a very Ele- 
gant Similitude, compared Riches to the Waters of a 
Well, which the more they are drawn oflF, they rife 
with Greater Clearne(s, and in more Abundance. 
There is a Sort of Infatuation in Covetoufiiefs, and 'tis 
very Difficult to Convince a Rich Man of the Truth of 
this Do£lrine ; a Difcourfe upon Charity is but an In- 
different Entertainment to thefe Men ; there's no Senfe 


The Art of Dying well. 6 5 

Ifi Parting with what they have ; but alas, the Time 
is Coming, when it will be too late either to Believe or 
Pra(^ice this Duty. 

The Laft Thing to be confider'd is the Manner oF 
Beftowing our Charity. For as Prudence and Difcre- 
tion are of great Service to Mankind, in the Guidance 
and Regulation of all Moral Aclions, fb are they Par- 
ticularly Neceflary in the Dire<^l:ion and Difpofal of our 

And vti the FirH Place, a Great Regard in the Dif- 
pofal of our Charity ought to be had to our own In- 
tentions in Doing it ; that Is, That it be not Done out 
of a Principle of Popularity, and a fordid AflFe6bation 
of Applau(c, but out of a Religious Defign of Pleafing 
God and as an Inftance of cur Love to him. To be 
Serviceable and Beneficial to others. When thou doft an 
Alms^ fays our Saviour, do not found a Trtmpet as the 
Hypocrites do j nor let thy Left^Hand know what thy Right- 
Hand doth ^ Matt. vi. a, g. Sr. Aufin in his Expofi- 
tion of this Scripture informs us, That by the Left'Hand 
we ought to underhand the Bid Intentions of Men ; in 
being Charitable and Beneficent merely out of Vanity 
and Oftentationj or a Profpe£^ of any other Temporal 
Inrereft and Advantage ; and that by the Phrafc of the 
Right' Hand, we ought to underftand the Good Inten- 
tions of Men, in being Kind and Compaflionate to others^ 
upon more Noble and Sublime Principles, The 
Profpe6i: of lmm )rtality, the Applaufe of God, and the 
Service of Mankind. 

The zd Thing to be confider'd with Re(pe(5l to 
«he Manner of Difpofing our Charity^ is This ; That k 
be done with Eafe, and Agreeahlemfsj without the leaf!: 
Hefitation or Delay. To fhifc off an Indigent Man 

K wirh 

65 The An of Dying well 

with Dilatory Excufes, is only to Mock his Sufferings. 
Our AlFiftance in th\s Cale many Times comes too late ; 
and the Man is^flarvM before we offer to Relieve 
him. To be feafonahle in our Diftributions, enhances 
the Value of the Benefit • For there is no Dallying with 
poverty and Want. With-hoU not Good from them to 
'whom it is due^ "when it is in the Fewer of thme Hand 
to do it. Say not unto thy Neighbour^ Go^ and come 
agamy and To-Morro'w I will gi've^ when thou hafi it by 
thee, Prov. iii. 27, 28. The Hofpitality o^^Abraham 
and Loty with the Franknefs and open Manner of Ex» 
preffiiig it, is RccoramendecJro our Imitation, Gen.iS, 
19. This was alfo the Pradlice of Tobtt, in his 8ch 
Chapter. He prevented the Poor in their Requefts to 
him, and would not ^ve them a Liberty fb much as to 
ask him. 

A ^d Qualification required in the Diflribution of 
our Charity is j That it be done with Cheerfidnefs and 
Comflacency, without any Grudging, Complaining or 
Difcontent. To bellow our Benevolence againlt Incli- 
nationj makes it look rather like an Ad'ion of Neceffity 
than Choice. Such an unwilling Charity can never 
be Interpreted to Proceed from One of the moft Chri- 
Hian and Commendable Motives to ic, viz,, a Confide- 
ration of the Mifevies, and Af]li6tiors3and Wants of Man- 
kind. In every Gift, fays the Preacher, Shew a Cheer*', 
ful Countenance ^ which St. Faul does more fully explain 
in the following Diretfiicn, Let every Man do according 
as he is difpos'^d in his Heart (but let every Man Dif- 
pofe his Heart accordingly) not Grudgingly^ or of Ne^ 
cejfitj ; for God Lovetb a Cheerful Giver^ 2 Cor. ix. 


The Art ofDyivg well 67 
A /^th Qualification of Chriftian Charity is Humility ; 
[iwhicb^ as it Relates to this Duty more particularly, 
iiconfifts, Firfty in a Juft Acknowledgment of the Fa- 
vours and Mercies which the Charirable Man receives 
from God. xdly. In a Lowly Opinion of the Un- 
worthinefs of the Offering he makes to his Poor Bro- 
ther for His Sake ; And ^dly^ in a Due Senfe of the 
Goodncfs of God in this j particularly, That he 
has Receiv'd much more, than he has Beftow'd on 
others. Sc. Gregory in his 14th Chapter of his i^//br^/ 
Dtfcourfes^ enlarges with great Strength of Argument 
to this Purpofe. It will fijik the Fride, fays he, of 
the moH Generous and Charitable BenefaBcr^ if in his 
" Difpofal of Earthly Comforts^ he duly confiders thefe 
Words of the Great Trofrietor of all Things , Make to 
" yourfelves Friends of the Mammon of Unrighteoufnefs^ 
that when ye fail, they may recei^ue you into e^verla^ivg 
Habitations. For if we can fur chafe Heaven hy the 
^ffifiance of our Riches, that is\ By a Liberal Dlfiri- 
" hution of them to the NeceJ/ities of Others, we ought, 
no doubt onty upon the Exercife of our Charity ^ to 
*^ Reflect with ourfehes j That we are rather making 
a Prefent to our Friends and EenefaBors, than that we 
are any Way Supplying the Wants of the Foot. 
Fifthly^ Another Qualification of Chriftian Charity 
and Beneficence, is Bountifulnefs i by which I mean fuch 
a Liberal Difpofition of Mind, as provokes a Man to 
Exert himfeif in all his Benefadions to the utmoft of his 
Power. To A61 in this Manner, is to Anfwer the De- 
fjgns of Providence> who has abundantly Beftow'd 
then). Our Charity in Giving to others, ought to Rife 
in Proportion to what we have Receiv'd from God j 
For God gives Much, that Men may Beftow the More- 

K 2 Bq 

68 7he Art of Dying well. 

Be merciful after thy Tower, If thou hafi Much, give 
Tlentcoujly. If thou haji Little^ do thy Diligence gladly 
to give of that Little ; for fo gatherefi thou thy felf a 
good Reward in the Day of NeceJJity^ Tob. iv. 8,9, 
Sr. Chryfofiom afiTures us, That not to give Plenteoujly^ 
i. e. as far as we are able, is to give Nothing, And in 
his 37th DifcoHrfe to the People Antioch^ he has this 
Remarkable PalTage, Thofe fays he ^ who Addrefs 
themfelvcs to God in the Language of David in his 
5 I ft Vfalm, Ha ve Mercy upon me^ O Gody Jifter thy 
Great Goodnefs^ according to the Greatnefs and Abun- 
dance of Their Riches, ought to have Mercy on the 

To conclude this Chaprer ; If a Man would live Re- 
llgioufly, or Dye Comforrably, he ought either by 
Reading and Obfervation, or by having Recourfe to 
the Judgment of Learned and Good Men to fatisfy 
himfelf in thefe Important Qucftions Namely, Whe- 
ther he can keep in his Poflefllon the Superfluities of his 
Income or Eftare without Sm ? Whether he is not 
rather oblig'd in Confcience to Give them to the Poor ? 
And again to Enquire farther, What Share or Portion 
of what wc PofTefs may be call'd Superfluous, and 
what may in common Ellimation be looked upon as Ne- 
ctflary for the Support and Maintenance of ourfelves 
and Families. This Enquiry is highly Reafonable ; 
Ikciufe a moderate Share of Riches may be Super- 
fluous to one Man, whereas a Larger Income may, ac- 
cording to the DSfF rence of his Circumftanccs, be 
highly NecefLiry for the Provifion of another. But as 
ic is not the Dcfign of this Diicourfe to enter into 
any unneccfl'ary Difpute?, but to Improve Men in ufeful 
Principle-j I ^ha!l Briefly fet dov/n Hich Pafliiges of 


The Art of Dying well, 6g 

Scripture, together with the Opinions of Ancient and 
Modern Writers upon this Head, as will give full Satis- 
fe<^ion CO any Reafonable Man. 

What I find Recorded in Scripture to this Purpole is. 
That Text of St. Matthew in his 6th Chapter, Tt can- 
not ferve God and Mammon ; and in the 3^/ of St. Luke» 
He that hath Two CoatSy let htm impart to him ihat hath 
none j and he that hath Meat^ let him do likewife. And 
that other Expreffion of the fame Afojlle in his nth 
Chapter, where it is faid to the Man (b SuperfluouO/ 
Rich, that he knew not where to Lay his Goods, Thou 
Fool, this Night thy Soul jhall he required of thee. The(e 
Words are Interpreted by Sr. Aisflin as a Denunciation 
of Eternal Punifhment upon the Rich Man, for keepiag 
in his own Hands what was unneceffary for Himfeif, 
and might have been of great Advantage to Others. 
' The Reports made by the Ancient Fathers upon This 
Subject, are Principally Thefe. St. Bafl^ in his Dtfccurfe 
to the Richy harh thefe Words ; ^re not you^ fays he, 
to he accounted a Vuhlick Rohher, who Look uf:n That 
to be your own^ with which ycu was Entrufled for the 
Benefit of others ? And immediately fubjoins, fuch a 
Misbehaviour you Injure as many Foor Menj as ycu are 
able to Relieve. St. Amhrofe in his 8ift Difcourfe Ddi. 
vers himfeif Thus i What^ fays he, is an AB hjujlice, 
if this be not ; Too Tenacioujly to keep what is my cwn^ 
altho I do not Invade the Property of another. O Un- 
guarded Exprejfion I To Call any Thing my Own ; and a 
little Lower j 'Tis equally Criminal to with-hcld your 
Superflunies from the Needy ^ as it is to hjure or De^ 
fraud any Man of his Right. Sr. Jerom in his Eplflh 
to Hedibia docs thus Advife her, If ycu have more 
than what is necejjary for FeoJ and Raiment ^ lay it out 


27:^^ Art of Dying well 
tspon the Poor» Conpder that in fuch a Cafe you are Dehtof 
to them- Sc. Chryfofiom in his i^ih, Homtly to the People 
of Antiochy fays thus. Is that 'which you Fojfefs unalienable 
your OTi^n ? Tou have fomething of what Belongs to the 
Toor in your Hands, whether you came to your Efiate by. 
Turchafe^ or by Right of Inheritance. Sr. Auftin in his 
Treatife on the 47th Vfalm hath thefe V\ ords^ What 
is Superfluous to the Rich, is Neceff'ary to the Poor. IVe 
Unjufily Detain from other Men what they have a Right 
to, when we keep to ourfelves what is not Neceffary for 
us. Sr. Gregory in his 3d Part of his ? amoral Care^ 
the 22d Admomtion, gives his Opinion Thus 5 Thoft 
Terfons, fays he, who neither Covet what is their Neigh^ 
hours, nor Communicate what is Their Own^ ought Care- 
fully to conftder with Themfelves, that all Men an 
"Emtitl'd to the Bounties of Nature, and the Common 
Trodutlions of the Earth 5 And that 'tis in vain for any 
Man to pretend to any Share of Goodnefs, who claims 
the General BenefaBions of Divine Pro^vtdence wholly to 
himfelf. And Sc. Bernard in his Epiftle to Henry^ an 
Archbilhop of France, 'Tis a Jufi Charge of the Poor 
upon Men of Elates, viz. fVhat ye fo lavijhly throw away 
in the Pride and Luxury of Life, is Properly Ours ; 
*Tis want of Chrtfian Compaffion that makes you with", 
hold it from us. And Holy Aquinas of later Date, to 
the fime Purpofe, Whatfoever a Man poffejfes in Supers- 
abundance, is a Debt to the Poor by the Law of f<latttre i 
In another Place, God has Commanded not only that a 
Tenth Part^ but alfo whatfoever is unnecejfary for our 
own Support and Maintenance be given to ^he Poor* 
And this Do6l:rine he vouches to be the (landing Opi- 
nion of all Divines. I {hall conclude this Chapter 
wich one Remark of my Own j and that is, That if 


The Art of Dying well 7 1 

any Man (ball Queftion,whether according to the Strefl 
and Rigour of Natural Right, he ought to A61 in this 
Manner, 1 (hall not Dlfpute it with him, fo long as 
he is obiig'd to do it by the Principles of Chriftiaa 
Charity. When the Cafe is fo Plain, as that I (hall 
be Damn'd upon the Omiffion of it, I think it is 
fcarce worth my while to Enquire whether I lhall 
fuffer for the Breach oF any Law of Nature^ or for 
the Want of Chriftian Compaffiont 


The Tenth Rule Vreparatery to a Happy Death 
is Conftantly to Watch over our Senfes, 
and to keep them under a Due Regulation. 

THE Five Senfes may not improperly be call'd 
the Gates or Paffages thro' which all Kinds 
of Wickednefs enter into the Soul of Man. There is 
nothing therefore which can conduce more to a Holy 
Life, and by Confequence to a Happy Death, than a 
Watchful Obfervance of thefe Faflages, that we may 
keep off the Attempts and Incurfions of Sin. 

The Firft Senje thro"" which Wickednefs Enters into 
the Soul of Man, is the Eye, This is the Gate thro" 
which all the Sins of Luxury and Concupifcence have 
their Admiflion into the Heart and Affe£lions; as is plain 
from the Words of our Saviour ; But I Jay unto you^ 
that ivhojoevtr look^xh on a Woman to Lull after her^ 
hath committed Adultery with her already in his Heart, 
And if thy Right Eye of end thee, pluck it out, and caB 
it from thee ; for it is Trofitahle for thee that one of thy 
Members jhould ferijh^ and not that thy whole Body {hould 


7 2 Th^ Art of Dying n?eJ[. 

he caH into Hell, Matt. v. 28, 29. This was tht Caft? 
of David and the T^^o EUers. The Power and Preva- 
lency of a Beautiful Obje£^ in CaptlsVating the AfiFc6li- 
ons, is Great and InexprefliDle. We are conquer'd be- 
fore we are upon our Guard, and have Time to make 
our Defence. 'Tis this Great Infelicity of Human Na- 
ture which the Apoftle Laments, when he fays ; I fee 
another Law in my Members^ warring againfi the Law 
of my Mind, and bringing me into Capivtty to the Laiv 
of Sm, which is in my Members, Rom. vii. 23. There 
is in the Chriftian Wiirfare a Perpetual Combat be- 
iwetn the Fleft and the Spirit j and it requires all the 
Holy C; u-^age and Bravery of a Soldier of Chrift Jefus, 
to ftand his Ground againft the Frequent Attacks made 
upon him this Way, 

But however Forcible the Temptations of this Kind 
may be, yet if a Mm be not Wanting to himfelf, he 
iiiay, by the BLlIing of God, entirely Mafter and Sub- 
di^e them. The Affliding Duties of Abftinence, Mor- 
tification, and Self-denial, are a fuitable Remedy for 
this Difeafe. St. Au^in in his Handred and Ninth 
Mp(lle^ has another Expedient, as well accommodated 
as This. Upon whatfoe^ver Ohjetly fays he, you casi jcur 
EyeSi Be fure you do not fx them there too long, 'Tis 
impofuble for any Man, fo long as he has his Eyes in his 
Head, not to look upon a Beautiful Obje6l when it ap- 
pears before him ; nor do I fee any Reafon why he may 
not Behold if, as it is the Workmanfiiip of God, with 
fome Pleafure and Saiisfa6):ion ; but in my Opinion 'tis 
Dangerous to Dwell ijpon the Delightful Profpec^, left 
it make too deep an Impreflion upon the Mind, and 
Engage us in too Ardent a Defire of it. Both Reafon 
and Religion will inform a Man, that he thought not 


The Art of T>ying well. 73 

to throw himfelf into the Road of Temptation, by feek- 
ing after Objeds of this Kind ; becaule he may not be 
lenfible how far his Virtue may be a Security to him in an 
unguarded Hour. If by Chance or Accider t he Lights 
upon the Enfiiaring Profped, Cuftom and Practice will 
teach him to avoid the Danger, by Fixing his Eyes 
upon another .Obje6l. This was the Remedy which 
Holy yob pre(crib*d to himfelf upon the like Occafion \ 
I haw made a Covenant with my Eyes i why then (hoM 
I think ufon a Maid? Job. xxxi. i. In this Ttxr he 
does not exprefs himfcif fb, as if he thought it unlawful 
to look upon a Woman, but only, that he would not, 
in our Saviour's Senfe, look upon a Woman to Luft after 
her. He was unwilling to Truft hirofelf too far, for 
Fear his Sight (hould allure him into farther Freedoms* 
And the Reafon he fubjoins •for fb Prudent and Chafle 
a Behaviour is worthy of its Author. If I allow'd my 
felf in fuch unwarrantable Profpe6ts, fays he, What Por- 
tion of God is there in me from above? Verf 2. As much 
as if he faid, God is my Whole Portion, the moft 
" Amiable Objefl of my Soul, I can Gaze on his Beau- 
" ties and Perfecfions with the Pureft Flames of Divine 
*^ Love; I can Contemplate his Brightnefd with the 
moft Innocent and Chaft Defires. While I thus Exer- 
cife my Love to God, I am fare to be Belov'd by 
him; For God Delights in the Contemplations of a 
*^ Spotlefs and Immaculate Soul. The Advice of our 
Saviour is a no lefs Effective Remedy againft the En- 
croachments of Concupifcence and Luft, If thine Eye 
ofend theey fluck it outy that is, That you ought to de- 
bar yourfelf the Beholding of fuch Tempting Obje6^Sj 
as much as if you had loft the Uie of your Sight. This 
is alfo a {leligious Caution againft Wantonnefs and 

L ImrnQ-^^ 

74 Lloe An oj Dying welh 

Immodefty, and exprefles the Great Difficulty there 
in ReForming the Loofenefs and Debaucheries of Youth. 

But here, and indeed with fome Appearance of Rea- 
Ton, it may be Reply'd ^ What could be the End 
and Defign of Providence in Furnifliing this Lower 
World wirh fo many Agreeable Objefls ? Why (b much 
Beauty, Comlinefs, and Proportion in the Formation of 
Man and Woman, if we lay under a Prohibition (b 
doubly (evcre, as neither to Behold nor Admire ? The 
Anfwer to this Qjeftion is Eafy, and at Hand j As Firft, 
That God has been pleas'd to Inftitute Marriage as a 
Religious Means of Preventing rhc Irregularities and 
Indecencies of an Unlawful Converfation, and of making 
our Inclinations Reafonable, by Fixing them upon 
Proper Ob}e6ls. The Duty of Love and Affection by 
this Honourable Appointment, is diftmguifh'd from the 
Intemperance of Lufl^, and to Behold and Love is an 
Inftance of Benevolence and Duty. The Inftitution of 
Marriage is as ancient as the Creation. It is not Good 
for the Man to be alone, J 'will make him an Help-meet 
for hinty fays God, Gen, 2. i8. The End of this Infti- 
tution is to Prevent Fornication and Adultery. The- 
Commandment under the Old Law wasf Not to Cq'vet 
the Wife of another Man, Fxod. xx. 17. The Command 
under the Neuf-Tefiament is Exprefs and Pofitive^ 
Bmhands Love yctir Wives, even <fj Chrifi alfo Loved 
the churchy Eph. v. 25'. 

Biit idly^ the Divine Wi(dom in all his Allowances 
and Difpenfations has a Regard to the Fittnefs and Qua- 
lification of ^he Perfon who is to receive them, and the 
Suitablenefs of them to the Srate and Circumftances pf 
}fizn. The'*e are many Inftances may he given in 
Ippr^l other Cbriftian Liberties, to which God has npt 


The Art of Dying well 75 

granted to all Mankind without Diftin6lior!, an Equal 
Right. Whatfoever may be Proper and Expedient for 
one Man,may be Inconvenient and Prejudicial to another. 
Whatfoever may be unlawful at one Time, upon a 
Change of Circumftances, may be juftifiable at another. 
Upon (bme Obje6ls we may Exercife our LoVe and our 
Admirarion without Meafure, and without Sin, which 
we cannot do upon others w thout Hurt to Ourfelves, 
and without OflFence to God. The Liberty of Behold- 
ing Each *other in the Fullnefs of Beauty and Glory, 
will be a Part of the Felicity of the Saints ; Becaufe We 
ihall then be freed from the Weaknefles of Mortality, 
and all the Carnal Defires of Flefli and Senfe. It is for 
this Reafon that God Indulges the whole Creation in a 
General Freedom of Beholding the Sun, Moon, an^J 
Stars, with whatfoever is Comely and Agreeable in all 
the Produ6tions of Nature ; becaufe there is nothing in 
them which can provoke in us any unlawful Defires 5 
It is for this Reafon that God has thought it Convenient 
tO lay a Rtftraint upon the AfFedions of Men, both 
with Regard to the Objects and Degrees of them. 
• A Second Senle thro* which Wicked ne(s makes its 
Entrance into the Soul of M^n, is, That of Hearing ; 
and therefore ought as Carefully to be look'd to, as 
that of Seeing. Now in Order to keep this Senfe under 
a Due Regulation, it is Neccffary that we keep the 
Tongue under Government and Subje6i:ion. For as the 
Tongue is the Inftrument of Speech, v^hereby our 
Words, whether Good or Bad, are Convey'd to the Ear, 
we muft take Care in the Firft Place in what Manner we 
Exprefs our Sentiments to others. And Becaufe the 
Tongue is many Times the Caufe of much Evil and 
Mifchief to Mankind , and that there are Few Men wha 

L z have 

76 Ihe Art of Dying well. 

have an Entire Maftery and Dominion over it, There- 
fore St, James affiires us; That if any Man offend not in ; 
Wbrd^ the fame is a PerfeB Man^ Chap. iii. 2. And a , 
little afrer he adds ; Behold how great a Matter a Uitle \ 
Fire kindleth • and the Tongue is a Fire^ a World of Ini^^ | 
^luityy Verfl 6. In this Text there are Three Things ' 
worthy our Obfeivation. The Firsi is; That 'tis a 
BuGnefs of Great D fficulty to keep the Tongue under 
Good Government; infomuch, that there are but very 
FeW;, and rhofetooMen of fome Eminency in 'Holinefs, 
^ho Practice this Duty, 2dly. The Apoftle does 
here very Elegantly ftt forth the Great Mifchiefs and 
Prejudices which arife to others from Calumny and 
DetracSlion, by the Similitude of a Spark of Fire^ which 
in a fmall Time lays wafte a whole Town. For how 
Frequently does an iKcaurious Word, or an Unguarded 
Expreffion Inflame a whole Neighbourhood ? What 
Broils, what Animofities, what Divifions have been 
heightn'd and improved among Relations and whole 
Families, by a Slanderous a Reviling, and a Falfe 
Tongue ? In the LaH Place, St. James does alfo in- 
form us, That Evil-fpeaking is not one (ingle uncom- 
poundtd Vice j but that 'tis a Mixture, and Complicati- 
on of many Sins ; or to ufe his own Eloquent Exprcfllon, 
That 'tis SL World of Inie^uity. This is no more than 
what Common Experience and Obfervation affures us 
cf, namely ; That ail Publick and Private Mifchiefs^ of 
what Kind or Complexion foever, are either Contriv'd, 
or Committed, or Defended by the Tongue. It is for 
thi? Reafor alfo Secondly^ why the Tongue is cali'd a 
World of Inieimty ; Becaule by Blafphemy and Perjury, 
and all Arh iftical Difcourf^j it Sins againd God ; by 
Inlamy, Reriexion, and unjud Accufation it is Injurious 


The Art of Dying ^eU. 77 
to our Neighhonr ; and Lafily^ by Lying and EquiVoca» 
tiori it is ot Fatal Conftquence to ourfehes. 

To this Teftimony of St. James^ I ihall add that of 
the Royal Vfalmifi, Deliver my Soul, O Lord, from Lying 
LifSj and from a Deceitful Tongue^ Pfal. cxx. 2. If the 
Greatnefs and Authority of a Prince cannot fecuic him 
from Ca4umny and Mifrepvefentation, how Hard is the 
Cafe of Private Subje6ls, much more of the Neceflitous 
Part of Mankind^ as being le(s unable to Defend them- 
felves a^ainft the Infults of Ignominy and Reproach? 
M^hat Reward jhall be given or done unto thee^ thou Falfi 
Tongue^ does immediately follow, Ferf, 3. Thefe Words 
are fomewhat Obfcurc, by Reafon of the ftri6t Propriety 
of the Hebrew Tongue ; but the Sen(e of them in my 
Opinion is This; 1 have all the Reafon in the World, 
*^ bDth in my Publick Capacity, as I am a King, and in 
** my Private Capacity, as I am a Man, to be afraid of 
any open Falfliood and Obloquy, or any more clofe 
and fly Infinuations ' which may be made againft 
" me, or Government, as being fully Senfible how 
Fatal the Confequences are which attend fo Inju- 
rious a Pradice? The Tfalmift\ Anfwer to the 
Queftion above-mention'd is \ Even mighty and fharp 
Arrows with hot Burning Coals In thij Text, a De- 
ceitful Tongue, by a very Elegant Similirude, is Com* 
par'd to Mighty and Sharf Arrows-^ and that In thefe 
Following Rtfpedts. For in the Fir§i Place it is the 
Nature of Calumny and Evil-fpeaking, to Wound and 
Murder at a Diftance. Secondly, It generally Difcharges 
iifelf with great Malignity and Force. Thirdly, It is 
too ofren fharpn'd and pointed with the Keennefs 
both of Malice and Wit ; And Lafily, it is Compared 
to Hot Burning Coals, as Expreffing ihe Wafting and 


78 The Art of T)/ing well 

Devouring Nature of this Vice. This Defcription of i 
Falfe and Beguiling Tongue docs very Lively fet forth 
the Injuries and Injuftice, and all the Train of Bad 
Confequences which continually attend Slander and 

To Evidence the Truth of the Fa6l more fully, I 
(hall produce Two very. Remarkable Inftances'of this 
Kind 'y The Firft is the Unjuft Accufation of the Infa- 
mous Doeg againft Ahimelech the Prieft, for High Trca- 
fon againlt SauL The Charge was fupported^ by no 
Evidence^ and in Reality a Downright Falfliood 5 and 
yet was it very Dreadful and Sanguinary in its EfFe6bs. 
The Credulous King believes the Story j The Innocent 
Prieft was facrific'd to his Refenlmeni ; and the Reft of 
his Brethren, to the Number of Eighty Five, were 
llaughter'd upon the (ame Account. Nor was this the 
laft Tragical Confequence of this impious Charge • A 
whole City muft be deftroy'd at once. Men and Wo* 
men, Children and Sucklings, nay even the Hearts them- 
felves, Oxen, Sheep, and Afles, are all wichout Di- 
ftinSlion the Objed^s of his Cruelty and Indignation, I 
Sam. 22. 

The other Example I fliall mention is the Rajh Promiji 
of Herod the King to the Daughter of Herodias, To 
give her whatfoever (he fliould ask, without any Regard 
to Right or Wrong, was To Precipitate a Promife, 
that I queftion wherher it was not as Weak, as it was 
Wicked j but to confirm this Promife with the Solem- 
nity of an Oath, was a farther Degree of Ralhnefs and 
Infatuation. For the inconfiderare Prince by this Teme- 
rity, threw himleif into this Fital Dilemma ; Either to 
be Guilty of Perjury, or Injuftice j and to t)e himfeif 


The Art of Dying well 79 

I under the Obligation of fuch an Oath, as he could nei- 
ther Keep, nor Break without Sin* The Conftquences 
of Adling in this Manner were Proportionable to the 
Demerit of the Crime The Firfi Effe6l of it was the 
Murder of John the BaptiH^ a Man of Great Innocence 
and Integrity, by Hero^ himlelf. The next Bad Con- 
fequence of this Oath, was a Bloody and Inhuman De- 
mand of the Mother of the Damfel j and the Third III 
EfFe61: was the Compliance of the Daughter in fo Bar- 
barous a Requeft. What a Complication of Vices at- 
tended tne Execution of this Rafh Oath ? Let us now 
confider how Correfpondent the Puni(hment was to the 
Crime it felf. In the FirFi Place, Herod was Defpoird 
of his Authority and Government by Qajus the Enipe- 
rour, and In the Gonclufion of the whole had no Share 
in that Kingdom, the Half of which he had Sworn to 
give to another, as *tis confirmed by Jofefhm^ Book t8* 
Chap. 9. The Daughter of Herodias, according to 
Callifius's Account of this Matter, paffing over a River 
in a Froft, funk into the Ice, and was Drown'd ^ and 
the Mother herfelf laying to Heart the SuflFerings of 
Herod, and the Lofs of her Daughter, dy'd with Excefs 
of Grief. 

There are feveral Difcretlonary Rules prefcrib'd by 
Wife Men, for the good Government of the Tongue, 
in which every Man's own Prudence may in fomc 
Meafure Dire6l him, according to the Different Cir» 
cumflances of the Cafe. The Advice given by Holy 
David \sy as I conceive, TheFli f1; and Beft DIre6bion to 
this Purpofe. / [aid I will take Heed to my Ways^ that I 
offend not in my Tongue^ Pfal. xxxlx. i. The Meaning 
of which Words is,* That to keep myfclf Innocent of 
^1! the Freedom? and Jnternpet^ncies of a jLicentious 


8o The Art of Dying w&ll. 

and Extravagant Tongue, I will never Sfeak or Think, 
or any Thing, but with the utmoft Camion, and 
jnoft Mature Deliberation Before-hand. 'Tis this which 
is the Diftinguifhing Character of a Man, and which 
gives him the Preference to Brutes, That he has the 
Free Exercife of his Rcafon ; That in Confequence of 
fuch a Divine Principle within him he can Enquire into 
the Nature and Circumftances of his own Actions ; and 
Tha- in Confequence ot fuch an Enquiry he can Deter- 
mi .e h^mfelf according to the Equity and Reafonablc- 
nt(s of' the Tiang to be done. The fame Divine Prin- 
ciples is no kfs a Light and a Dire6lion to him> as to hig 
Thoughrs, to his Words, to his Defires, to his Refolu- 
tions, and indeed in all the Exercifts and Operarions 
of the Rational Soul, 

If any Man by Reafbn of the Narrownefs of his Cir- 
cumftances, or the Hurry and Bufmefs of the World, 
fli uld Pretend that he is wholly unqualify 'd for fuch 
Tremeditations as Thefe 5 The Anfwer is ; That let a 
Man be never fo much ftraitn'd in his Circumftances, 
or employ'd in Worldly Bufmefs and Engagements 
never fb far, yet may he find at lead one Spare Hour 
in a Morning For this Purpofc, If thro' Want of Judg- 
ment and the Weaknefs of his Underftanding, he be 
any Thing Incapacitated for fuch Solemn Reflexions, let 
him Addrefshimfelf to God by Prayer, Defiring of him 
that by his Enlightning Spiric he wou*d clear his Under- 
ftanding, and Direct:, San£lifie, and Govern all his 
Thoughts, Words, gnd Works, to his Glory, and his 
own Salvation. And that he may behave himfelf in Thefe 
Premeditations with more Regularity and Exa6lne^, ic 
will be neceffary for him in the Evening alfo ro examine 
his Confcicnce thro'ly, and to Demand an Account of 


The An of Dfing well. 8 1 

filmfelf whether he has any Way Offended by Thinking, 
or Speaking, or Ad:ing any Thing Contrary to the 
'Known Will of God ; and wherefoever he (ball difcovec 
himfelf ro have mlsbehav'd, let him not Dare to Com- 
pofe himfelF to Sleep, till he has made his Peace with 
God by a Firm Refc^lution of Amenomeac 

idly* But to come clofer to the Argument I am up* 
on ; IF Men would have fuch a Reverence and Refpedl 
for One Another, as to Manage their Difcourfe with 
Decerxy and Temper, with Precaution and a Stri6l 
Regard to Truth, it would be Impcffible that any Wic- 
kedneft ftiould pafs into the Soul ot Man thro' the Senfc 
of Hearing, There are Four Kinds of Difcourfe Prin- 
cipally which both Reafbn and Religion will indrudl a 
Man to be alv/ay Obfervant of, and to Guard againil. 
The Fir/? is Ail Prcphane and AtheilHcal Dlfcourfe, 
when Men (hall eltbtr Deny the Being of a God, the 
Immortality of theSnul,and a Future Stare, orfhall Impi- 
oufly Ridicule his Word. When a Man is arriv'd to fuch 
a Pitch of Infidelity as This, his Morals will Fall in 

I Courfe \ Becaufe he has no Good Principles co a6l; 
by. A Second Way whereby a Man is Capable of 

^ Offending in this Rcfpe^^: is ; by Calumny and Slan- 
der ^ When either we fpeak that Evil of our Neigh- 

I bour which we know to be Falfe, or altho' it may 
in fome meafure be True, jet we either Agpavate 
and Enlarge it, or \k it be capable of a Favourable 
Interpretation, we ftiall put the worft Ccnfi:ru6^*on up- 
on it. There's a wicked Cunofity in Men, which plea- 
fcs them to hear others abus'd, and a Gruel Delight they 
take in Cenfure^ and Evil-fpeaking. Who fo frivUy 
Jlandereth bis Neighhury him -will I Defiroy, Pfal. ci. 
is the Heavy Judgment which God Himfelf has de- 

M nounc'd 

82 The Art of Dying well. 

nounc'd againft this Prevailing Sin. And becaufe Raf* 
lery and lr)ve<5live is Part of the Entertainment at 
Tahlc^ and atnong Publick Company j To prevent fo 
Scandilous a Practice, St. Auftin order 'd the foliowing 
Verfes to be fix'd up over his Table, againft the Wall. 

Tide Man in Railing Bold, in Censure Free^ 
Shall never he a well-come Cue ft to me, 

A Third Way whereby a Man is capable of Offend^ 
ing with the Tongue, is by Flattery and DlflTliliuiation \ 
when either v/e Compliment Men for ihofe Perkdions 
which they really Want j or too Highly commend 
them for Thofe they may really have. There is an 
inbred Vanity and Stlfiflmefs in Man, which prompts 
him to entertain an immoderate Opinion of himfelf 5 
and if another has fb little Honefty, and fo much Affu- 
rance as to Praife him for his Endowments, Acquire- 
ments, or his Performances, the Credulous Man has (b 
much Weaknels as to Believe it. 

But ^'hly^ Another Inftance of Evil fpeaking is 
either by Writing or Reading Books of Obfcenity and 
Indecence ; or orherwife, by Diverting ourfelves with 
Wanton Ketches, and Amorous Songs. The Poy(bn 
is convey'd to the Soul with a Fatal Succcfs, when it 
is Drcls'd up in Harmony and Fine Singing. The 
Diverfions of this Kind are the fame with thofe of the 
Syrensi who are Reported by the Heathens to have 
allur'd Men by the Sweetnefs of their Voice, to throw 
thcmfelves into the Sea, and then to have Devoured 

The m,o{l Effectual Remedy againft thefe and the like 
Evils 3 is to A6t with Prudence and Caution in the 


The Ah of Dying well ? g 

Choke of our Compr'Tjy, and to hold no CorrcTpon- 
dence with Wicked Men. 'Tis a Commendable Piece 
of Pride to keep thefe Men at a Dlftance; Becaufe too 
Clofe a Familiarity with them Eicourao;es them in fuch 
a Licen'ioufncfs o^Talk, as ts no lefi a Breach of Good 
Manners, thaa it is oftentimes an Abu(e and Cor tempt 
of our Holy Religion. The Fl^fl: Principle of Ear ca- 
tion which Solomon prefcrib'd to his Son, wa5 to the 
fame Purpofe, My Son^hear the In^ruciion of thy Father 
&c. If Sinners entice thee, confent thou mt. If they fay 
1 Come with uSy let us lay in wait for Bloody let us lurk Dri* 
i *vily for the I mocent, without Caufe \ Ln us [wallow them 
alive as the Grave, ani whole as thofe that go down into 
the Vtt: We jhall fnd all precious Subfiance ; we (liall fill 
our Houfes with Spoil: My Son^ walk ?tct thou in the 
Way With them ^ refrain thy Foot from their Vath • 
Prov. i.. 8, I 1 1, II, I 5-. 

A Third Senfe is, HUxx Smelling', bur I (hall pafs 
over this Subjtdl, bcc. uf^ if is impofTible that Sin can 
make any Entrance into the Soul This Way. The more 
Valuable Kirid of Odours are the Property only of a 
Few", and as to Thofe which are more Common, fuch 
as the Smeil of Violets, and Rofes, cJ^c. they arelrnccent 
and Allowable. 

I proceed Therefore in the 4th Place to Confidcr * 
the Senfe cf Tafting, and fuch Rules and Direclions, as 
may be of fome Advantage to us in Keeping out the 
Incurfions of Sin from, that Quarter, Now the Two 
Great Sins which generally gain Ad million this Way, 
are Gluttony and Drunkennefs , and Tf efe Vice?, as 
we may obferve by Experience^ are frequently attended 
with many more Sins, befides a great Train of other 
Mifchiefs and Inconveniencies. That Mvn might be 

M 2 aiways 

84 Jrt of T)ywg well. 

always up^n their Guard, and Prepared to Meet our 
Lord at his Coming, Sc. Luke gives them this Neceffary 
Caution ; Take Heed to yourfelves^ lefi at any Time your 
Hearts he ovenhargd with Surfeit ir,g, and Druhkennefs, 
Chap. xxi. 34. Thefe Vices are R-.-ckon'd in the 
Holy Scripture, among the Number of fuch as are en- 
licl'd CO Damnation. I^ow the Works rf the Flejh ar^ 
Mamfift^ which are Thefe j Adultery, Fornication^ Un- 
file annefs, Lafcivionffjefsy Idolatry, Witchcraft, Hatred^ 
Va-iance^ Emulations-, Wrath ^ ' trife, S ed it tons, ^ Here fie s, 
Envymp^ Murdtrs, Drunktnnefs , Re'vellrngs, and fuch 
Like . Of which I tell you agam, that they who do juch 
Jhings, [had not Inherit the Kingdom of God^ Gai. v- 
19, xo, 21. Nor u-f "^*'fe Sins only Rewarded vj'uh 
Future Punifhmcncs in anO'htr Life^ but they many 
Times carry with them iheir own Punifbment in This j 
For there is no Vice which fo much Cloggs and In- 
cumbers the Spirits, and Ur qualifies Men for the Offices 
of Piety and Devotion, as Inremperatc Living. St. 
^ Bafil, in his Difccurfe of Fafring, by a very Proper 
Stmilitude^ iiluftraies this Truth ; As thofe Vafoitrs, fays 
he, which rife from the Earth, overf^read the Heavens ^ 
md Intercept the Light of the Sun^ fo do Gluttony and 
Drunkennefi cxcke m Men Juch Fumes of Dark^efs as 
Ohfcure the Brightnefs of Hum^n Reafon, and Overca(t 
the Light (f the Divide Spirit within us, 

Anothtr ill Conftqu.ixe of incemperarxe is; That 
"cis Pr< J dfcial to the Health, by filling the Body with 
Giofs Humours^ and thereby Creating many Difeafes, 
which of;en:imes are the Caufe ol' Dtath. Antt^hanes^ 
an Emir.ent Phyfician, mentioii'd by Clemens Alexan^ 
df'inusy ha? i.ff rted, That mod of the Diftempcrs IncI-" 
dent to a H^j»maa Body, are Cccafion'd by too great 


Ike Art of D/ing well 8$ 
a Qajr'ky, and too great a Variety of Meats. St. 
! Bafil affii-mf on the other Hand, in his Firft Sermon 
\ upon Fafiir>g, That l^othing conduces more to the Health 
of Many than Abjttnence mtd Self denial. It is the Gon- 
current Pradticc of all Phyficians to prefcribe a ftrlft 
Forbf:atance from Wine and Meats in moft Cafes. I 
ild (abjoin to This ; That all Intemperance in Eat- 
iiig and D inking is Coftly and Expenfive, and reduces 
M' • bv Degrets to Poverty and Want. There is fcarce 
any Vic> which more impairs the Fortunes and Eftates 
of Mt n than Luxury, and High Living. I (hail con- 
clude this Argviment with this Obfervation, That Im* 
mod^^j Atlon and Exctfs in Feeding is in many Inftances 
an injury and Injuftice to the Poor, in that it renders t 
Man uncapable to Bellow his Superfluities upon them. 
The Demands for E^iing and Drinking run fo high, 
that noihing remains for the Exercife of his Beneficence 
and Charity, Thus that faying of the Afoflle is lite- 
rally fulfili'd. One is Hungry ^ and another is Drunken^ 
I Cor. xi. 21. But not to enlarge any farther on the 
Great Miichiefs and 111 Conftquences of an Intemperate 
Life, I flia>l Produce fuch a Remedy as may be of 
fome Importance in rhe Prevention of this Evil, Now 
what 1 would Propofe upon this Occafion, (hall be the 
Jmitarion of the Great Examples of the Primitive Chri*^ 
flian?, and other Holy and Devout Perpjns in the Ear- 
Heft Ages of the Church. It was look'd upon in 
tbofe Times as a Piece of Luxury and Epicurifm, to 
Eat any Thing that Was Roafl: or Boil'd. I (hall take 
no Notice of St. ^mhrofcy who according to the Account 
given of him by Paulintts in the Hiftory of his Life* 
fafted all the Days in the Year except the Feftiv^tlsy and 
Sundays. I pa(s by the Pra6]:ice of St, Aafin^ who, a* 


26 The Art of Dying well. 

fcjjidius^ who wrote his Life, Teftifies, liv'd Principally 
upon Herbs and Sallads, and rarely had a Difh of Meat 
upon his Table, unlefs it was for Srrangers, or Sick 
Perfons. I (hall not mention many other Celebrated 
Inftances of Abftinence and Mortification ; I (hall only 
obferve, How God Himfelf, the Great Proprierour of 
Heaven and Earth, has Pointed out to us the Duty of 
Temperance, in the Method He Himfelf contrived to 
Feed the IfraeUtes, for the Space of Forty Years, in their 
Paflage thro' the Wildernefs. The Almighty, /he In- 
finitely Wife, the only Good God, who underftood, 
who was able, who was willing to Relieve the Wants 
of his People, yet gave them only Manna and Water hr 
thtir Subfiftence, This was the Provifion which 
Omnifcience itfilf appointed for them, and yet they 
all continued in a State of Health and Vigour, till 
ihcy broke in upon the Direj£lions of Heaven, and re- 
quired Meat for their Luft. 

To this Example of God the Father, I (hall annex 
the Example of his Blefled Son, In whom were hid all 
the Treafures cf Wifdom and Knowledge, The whole 
Entertainment for many Thoufand People was only 
Five Barley Loaves, and Two Small Fifhes, Johnvi.^, 
Nor was this the Pradice of our Saviour, only when 
he was in a State of Mortality and Want, but alfo affej. 
his Refurre^lion, Whm all Tower in Heaven and Earth 
was given unto hint. All the Provifion he made for 
his Difciples was, a Small Quantity of Bread and Fifli, 
John xxl 9. There is no Mention made of Wines, 
or any Expenfive Curiofiries whatfoever. O how Infi- 
nicf ly Wide are the Counfels of God from the Counfels 
of Men / The Great Po{rcff )ur of All things Recom- 
mends a Frugal Simpliciry of Diet j The Spiritual Re- 


lioe Art Of uying well. 

frefliments of Confcience, and the Pleafures of Divine 
Meditation are the only Feafts and Enrertainroents 
which he has any Regard to, and with which he in- 
deed alhws us to Satiate our ftlves to the Full ; while 
Vain Inconfiderate Man is always projedling New 
Scenes of Intemperance, and paying his Conftanc Ado* 
ration to his c wn Belly, according to the Obfervatioa 
of St.PW, PW. 3.9. 

The laft Senfe thro* which Sin Enters into the Soul 
of Man, is That of Touching , This is generally look'd 
upon to"' be the moft Lively and Affecting of all the 
Senfes, The Great and Gtying Sins or Auulcery, For- 
nication, and llncleannels gain their AdmilTlon into the 
Heart of Man thro' this Senfe. But the Rules of Mo- 
defty, and the Chaflity of our Holy Religion forbid me 
to Enlarge upon chis Subje6l. Thele Vjccs God knows 
are too Common and Prevailing, and every Man's own 
Copfcknce, if be be not loft to the Convidions of it, 
will plainly tell him, when he is Guilry of them, I 
fliall only add the Advice of St, Taul upon this Occa- 
fion j But Fornication^ and all Unckannefsy let it not h& 
once named among you as becometh Saints. Eph. 5-. 
Now as to thefe Dileafes a»)d Diftempers of the Mind [ 
fhould advife a Man rather to have Recourfe to the Ad- 
vice of a Fhyfician^ than^he Affiflance of a Divine, 
The Firft thing which the Vhyfician generally prefcribes, 
is the Forbearance of Meat and Wine. The Cafe of 
the Ui^chaft Man is much the lame ; And the Pre- 
fcription, if reftrain'd to a Degree of Moderation, will 
be ot Equal Se vice to him. Vfe a little Wtne^ fays 
St. Vaul ro Tim^thy^ for thy Stomachi fake^ and thine 
often Infirmities, • Ep. Z3. Vfe Wine-^ ihat is, by 
realon ot the Weakneis of thy Stomach ; But Ufe a 


88 The Art of Dfing wdl. 

little Wine^ To avoid Intemperance; Fur Wine In- 
flames the Body, and enkindles the Fire of Luft. j 
The next Step which the Phyficians take is, to pre* I 
vent a Fever by bleedmg a Vein. There feems to be fbmc 
Agreeablenefs to this Method of Cure in Sr. FauV^ 
Management of himfelf; / keef under my Body, and 
hring it into fuhje^ion, I'Cor. 9. 27. Another Care of 
the Phyfician is to Prefer ibe moderate Exercife • fuch 
as Walking, or the Employment of our felves in any 
other A6live Innocent Sports and Recreations. What is 
Neceffary in this Cafe to preferve the Healtli of the 
Body, is in ft>me Senfe Neceffary alfo for the Health 
of the Soul. If a Man employ himfeJf in the Spiri- 
tual Exercife of Prayer and Devotion, in a Holy Con- 
templation of the Myftenes of his Own Redemption, 
in a Confideration of the Four laB Things, Death, 
JudgmentjHeaven, and Hell, or any other Holy Subje61: 
in Divinity ; Thele are a Prevailing Means to Abftradl 
the Thoughts and Affe<f^ions from the Things of Flefh 
and Senfe. If thefe Religious Exercifes prove Infuffi- 
cient to reduce him to the ^Principles of Temperance 
and Sobriety, let him employ a farther Part of his 
Time in Reading the Holy Scriptures^ or the Lives of 
the Holy Afofiks^ and Fathers of the Church, or any 
Other Books of Piety and Devotion whatfoever. 

To Finifh this Chapter ; The moft Effeditual Reme* 
dy againft Luxury and Intemperance, and Confe- 
quqntly againfl: the Carnal Defires of the Flefh, is 
to avoid Idlenefs ; For as the Soul of Man is an Active 
Principle, and Conflantly employed in Thoughr and 
Confideration, it is Reafonable to Believe, that if it be 
not engag'd in N-ceffary and Ufeful Speculations, v. will 
buify itfelf in Vain and Impertinent, or in Sinful and 


The Art of 7)jiing well. 89 

Wanton Thoughts. There are no Men fo free from all 
Impurity and Uncleannefs of Thought, as thofe whd 
are taken up in worldly Bufmefi, or engag'd in the 
Study of human Learning. This was the Reafon, it is 
highly credible, why our Blefled Saviour himfelf was 
pleas'd to choofe his Parents out of the laborious Part 
of Mankind ; becaufe Induftry and Application to Bu- 
finefe is the befl: Prevention of Evil, and a Man is neve? 
more fubjeft to the Temptations of the Worlds thp 
F!efh, and the Devil, than when he has 'nothing- to do. 
Tis credibly reported, that our Lord was foiiie time 
affiftant to his Father in his own Employment. I only 
(>bferve this by the By, as a ufeful InftruflLon to Men 
in low Circumftances : In the firft Place, that they 
fliould be pleased and fatisfy'd with that State and Con- 
dition of Life, in which the Providence of God has 
pJiec'd them *, and. Secondly, That they ftiould keep off 
from all the Mifchiefs and Inconveniences of an Idle and 
Una^ive Life. 


The Bleuenth Rule Prefaratory to a hd^fy Deathy is y 
To confirm a fincere and uaiverfal Repentance by 
Reformation and Amendment. 

THE great Duty of Repentance confifts in thefe 
following Particulars. 
Flrfl^ In Contrition, or a thorough Senfe of the Na- 
ture and Guilt of Sin. 



The Art of Dying well. 

Secondly^ Ii^ an humble Acknowledgment and Coiv: 
feflion of it. 

Thirdly J In a thorough Reformation of Life and Man- 
ners. And, 

Lajliyj In an equitable Reftitution for any A£ls of 
Injury and Injuftice we may have done to others* 
Whofoever performs thefe Duties with Sincerity, with 
Conftancy, without Flattery, and without Referve, 
will receive Forgivenefs of Sins. 

The Duty ^of Contrition being the Foundati6n of the 
Duty of Repemamcj I lhall begin with that, and am 
oblig'd to premife. That wherever the Scripture men- 
tions any thing concerning the Nature of this Duty, it 
does not expreft it felf in fuch Terms, as imply a mere 
formal Sorrow and Concern for Sin, or fome outward 
Expreflions of Grief and Affli£lion for it, or any 
cold and heartlefs Refolutions againft it for the future ^ 
but in fuch Terms, as import a deep Compun£lion of 
the Heart, and fuch a lively and aSli£ling Senfe of the 
Horror and Guilt of it, as cuts and tears the very Soul 
and Confcience of Man i Rent your Hearts^ and not your 
Garments^ and turn u^to the Lord your God ; chap. if. 
13. It was a Cuftom among the Jews^ to expre^s their 
Grief, by tearing their Garments : In allulion to this 
Pra^lice the Prophet direfts us, to exprefs our Concern 
for Sin, hy.jemr^gy or tearing the Heart. And the 
Royal Pfalmlfl^ to defcribe the Duty of Repentance 
with more Force and Energy, afTures us, that the Heart 
mufi: be broken j ground to pieces^ as it were, and quite 
worn outy before God will be reconciled to us : The Sa- 
crifice of Cod is a troubled Spirit a broken and a contrite 


The Art of Dying well. 9 1 

Hearty God^ /halt thou notdefplfe : Pfai. li. 17. There 
is fo much Life and Spirit in thefe words, as implies a 
ftrongand hearty Concern for Sin. Tis a lame and 
imperfeft Repentance which vents It felf in thefe and 
the like indolent Expre (lions : / am concerned that I 
have aEied in fo imprudent a manner \ I ought to have 
confider^d better ; / will take care for the future y and 
hope God will forgive me for what*s pafl.^* Tis al- 
moft inci^edible with what Striftnefs and Severity the 
antient Fathers have delivered themfelves on this Subje^ 
of Contrition : St. Cyprian^ in his Difcourfe of Fa lln 
Man^ has thefe words : Our Repentance ought to rife in 
proportion to our Crimes* If the Wotind be deep j it mujl be 
probed and lanced^ and attended with great Care. A long 
Courfe of Prayer and Abjiinence mufl be gone thro\ we 
mujl pafs away our Days in Mourning^ and our Nights 
in Watchings and Tears, What has a Sinner to do with 
Merriment and Pleafure ? He ought to lay down in Sack- 
cloth J and AJhes^ and his own Wichdnefs. Clemens Alex- 
andrinm gives this Charafter of Repentance, That *tis 
the Baptifm of Tears, St. Gregory Nazjanz^en^ in his 
fecond Difcour^e of Baptifm, has thefe words : / never 
re-admit a Penitent into the Favour of the Churchy unlefs 
J perceive him melted into Tears, And Theodorety in his' 
Epitome of the Divine Decrees^ in his Chapter of Repen- 
tanccj . thus exprefles himfelf : The Wounds which xoc 
receive after Baptifm are indeed curable^ but not fo eafily 
as by the Laver of Regeneration ^ but by a large Effufion 
of Tearsy and a laborious Reformation, 

In this folemn and afFefting manner have thefe Cele^ 
brated Lights of the Chriftian Church exprefs'd them- 

N 2 Selves 

9^ Tbe Art of ^jing "well. 

• felves concerning the. Nature of Contrition ; however 
little regard may be had to this Duty in the prefeat 
Age. To live righteoufly, and die peaceably, and ta 
be reconcil'd efFedlually to. God, a Man muft retire into 
himfelf, and from the World, and thus expoflulate 
the Cafe with himfelf : " Ah miferable Man that I am! 
*^ What Loads of Guilt fit heavy upon my Soul ? I 
dare not look up to Heaven, becaufe I have offended 
againft it : I have no reafonable Expectance either of 
Favopr or Mercy from the Great Creator of all 
*' Things, and the Fountain of all Good. I have dif- 
oblig'd my moft merciful and loving Father, who 
has, in the moft plentiful manner, beftowed his 
KiadnefTes upoA me, and wl^o, in all the Inftances of 
his Providence, has been liberal and beneficent to me 
abo^Ye ui^afure. I dare not apply for Pardon to my 
%vjoui:, to that Saviour who loved me, while 1 was 
his Enemy, who died for me when I had finned a-^ 
gainft him *, becaufe I have again repeated my Pro- 
vocations, and crucifi<?d my Lord afrefh, and ftill 
continue to do fo. Oh the inhuman Returns for 
fuch matchlels condefcending Love 1 Oh Ingratitude 
excefiive and inexpr^llible for fuch Overrflowings of 
Bounty- ! My Saviour was whipped with Scourges, 
*' was crowned with Thorns, was faftened, with Nails 
l',^t(^. t]b^, Cf o6 j he was wounded to cure me, he was 
bruifed to heal th^I^^aladiesof my f^nful Soul, and yet 
1 ftill go on to encreafs his Sufferings. He expreffvS 
to nie, naked upon the Grofs, v^hat an ajrdent Thirfi 
*5 h^ has. for my Salvation I and I, in return, worle than / 
^h? Jcivs-i $ive hwi, Gall, and Finegar to- drlnh What 

*' Thought 

The Art of Trying well. 9 5 

•^ Thought can reach, or what Tongue can exprefsthe 
« inconceivable Height of Glory I am fallen from? 
" Before I left the Paths of Virtue, and plunged my 
" felf in the Depths of Sin, I was Heir Apparent of 
<^ the Kingdom of Heaven ; I was but one Degree lower 
than the Angels. But, alas ! How am I fallen, like 
Lucifer Son of the Morning, from the Throne of 
God, and the Delights of Angels ? I'his fleeting 
fhort-lived Plea^fure^^/^^f unreafonable Luft ^ this Scan- 
dal '*and Reflexion, that Ad of Intemperance 
" and Injuftice ; this Prophanation of the Name of 
God, or that Negled or Contempt of his Wor- 
fhip, how has one, or more, or it may te 
<^ all thefe Vices contributed to the dreadful Fall ? 
From the glorious Liberty of being the Son of God, 
I am funk down into the VafTalage of the Devil, my 
moft implacable Enemy. This decaying Body of 
" mine is haftening daily to the Regions of Death, I 
" am approaching every moment the Confines of Eter- 
nity. All behind me is Sin, and all before me is De- 
flruftion. I now confider what I have done^ and 
fhould he glad I could efFe£lually confider what I am 
<t like to fuffcr. This Day, this Hour, perhaps this 
" Moment I Ihall depart this World. Thefe Profpefts 
*^ amaze and confound me, and my Ingratitude flies in my, 
Face. O let me roufe and alarm my felf into a S^nfe 
of my own Danger, the Heinoufneft of my Sing, 
and the Neceflity of Repentance'. / will arife there- 
to fore, with the prodigal Son, and go unto my Father-, 
« and fay unto him Father ^ I have finned againfl Hea- 
venj and before thee, and am no more worthy to be 


94 The Art of Dying 'well. 

called thy Son. I will fearch into, and deal impar- 
tially with my whole Soul ; I will fhake off every 
favourite and beloved Sin, and endeavour to recon- 
^ cile niy felf to my offended God." 

This religious Method of Enquiry and Self Condem- 
nation has been the conftant Pra£lice of all devout Pe- 
nitents, from the firft Rife of the Chriftian Church, as 
being the moft effe£lual means to bring the Sinner to a 
Confideration of himfelf. This was the Behaviour of 
the Royal Pfalmifiy when his Confcience charged him 
feome with the two great Sins of Murder and Adultery, 
this awakened him into a deep Contrition for them, 
and immediately he expreffes himfelf in this mournful 
Strain : / am weary of my Groaning^ every Night wafh 1 
my Bed^ and water my Couch with my Tears \ Pfal. vi. 6. 
This was alfo the Behaviour of St. Feter^ immediately 
upon the Denial of our Saviour. The Guilt of his 
Cowardice and Treachery foon overtook him, and we 
read, That he went out^ and wept bitterly *, Mat. xxvi.yj. 
This, Laftly, was the Praftice of the Woman who was 
aSmner\ the Text tells us, That JJje flood at Jefta 
Feet weepings and began to wafl) his Feet with Tears^ and 
to Wipe them with the Hairs of her Head *, Luke vii. 
37, 38. 

But, Secondly^ Another particular Office or Branch 
of True Repentance^ is humbly to acknowledge and con- 
fefs our Sins to God. There is fcarceany Duty, in the 
whole Compafsof Chriftianity, which requires a grea- 
ter fhare of religious Prudence, and an honed Impar-r 
tiality in the Performance of it, than this of Confef- 
fion. 'Jis with great Reludance and Regret that Men 


The Art of Trying well. 95 

are firft brought to enquire into the State and Condi- 
tion of their own Souls ; and when the Force of Per- 
fuafion has led him thus far, they care not to dwell 
there too long, much lefs to be brought to an open 
and ingenuous Acknowledgment of their Crimes^ or at 
beft they fhall only exprefs themfelves in a general Con- 
feflion of them : " Lord^ I have broken all thy Com- 
mandments ^ / have been guilty of all kinds of Sin ; / 
never ^ in my whole Life^ did any one ABion which 
was '^leafing and acceptable to thee ! ** Now in fuch a 
general Confellion as this, as it is greatly to be hoped 
that they acknowledge themfelves to be much worfe than 
they really are, by confefling what they were i3iever 
guilty of-, fo it is fadly to be feared, on the other 
hand, that they make themfelves much better^ by con- 
cealing, or not charging themfelves with thofe Crimes 
which they have aftually committed. There are others 
again who fhall bring themfelves to a particular Con- 
feffion of their Sins, and who fiiall Diftinflly, and in 
Order, as far as their Memory will give them leave, 
repeat and confefs every fmgle Sin they have been guilr 
ty of, but never enquire into the particular Circum- 
ftances and Aggravations of them ^ not confidering, 
that every Adion is mere or lefs finfal, according to 
the different Circumft'ances that attend it. In all moral 
Actions a great regard is to be had to the Perfon, Place^ 
Timcy and many other Circumflances of doing them : 
for what is lawful for one Man, by virtue of his Com- 
niiAion, or otherwife to do, may be unlawful in ano- 
ther > What with Decency, and without Offence, may 
don^ in one Placet cannot without Sin and Scandal 


9 6 The Art of T)ying ^weU. 

be tranfafted in another : And, Laftly, there is alfo a 
particular Time and Seafon, which, in a great meafure, 
diftlnguifhes the Aaions of Men, and makes them more 
©r lefs immoral. There ought alfo, in Confefiion, fome 
Refpea to be had to the Nature of the Crime commit- 
ted J as whether it be a Private or a Puhlick Vice ; As 
alfo of the different Laws of which it is a Violation 
and, in the laft Place, fome Confideration taken of the 
frequency of doing it ; becaufethe fame Crime, by being 
often repeated, is rather a Complication of Vices, than 
one fingle Sin. 

This then is the Duty of every true Penitent, to re- 
tire into himfelf, and to examine his own Confcience 
as to the moral State and Condition of it but in. all 
Cafes of Difficulty and Scruple to have recourfe to the 
Judgment of fome able and learned Minijier^ who will 
give him Comfort and Satisfaction in all his Doubts. 

A third Duty of Repentance is Reformation and A* 
mendment of Life, or fuch a moral Change of all our 
evil Anions and Dllpofitions, as can only reconcile us 
to God. To exprefs the utmofl: Concern for Sin, with* 
out any Amendment, or it may be the leaft Intertfloii 
of fo doing, is only a morefolemn Piece of Hypocrify, 
and a fatal Cheat we put upon Qur felves. It argues a 
mean Opinion, and unworthy of the Majefty of God, 
when we imagine that he can be pacified and prevailed 
upon by Tears, or a few whining Expoftulations. 
Wherever the Scripture mentions any thing concerning 
Repentance^ it is in fuch Phrafes as import a thorow, 
perfect, and univerfal Change and is therefore called 
a raifing us from the Dead^ a pajfmg from Death unfo 


The Art of Tfying z^ueli. 

Xjifcj a Creating in m a new SeuU and a new Life^ and be- 
ing Born ag4n* Now thefe, with many other Expref- 
fions of the like Nature, imply an entire Alteration in 
all the Difpofitions of the Soul, and in the whole Te- 
nourof Life. This is the great Argument of Converfion, 
when by an exemplary Piety, and a vifible Holinefs, 
W manifeft to God whom we have difpleafed, and to 
,the World to whom we have given Offence, that we 
exprefs the inward Penitency of the Soul : For as all 
A<n:s of Sin and Difobedience to God do naturally cre- 
ate, in the Minds of Men, fome Trouble and Concern ; 
yet this Trouble and Concern for Sin is only the Be- 
ginning of Repentance, and neither acceptable to God, 
r^r available to Men, unlefs we jniake it the Ground 
gnd Foundation of a good Life. 

But, Fourthly^ Another Inftance of the Duty of Re- 
pentance^ is Reftitution*, or a Reparation of all Injury 
and Injuftice, of what kind foever, which we have done 
to others. This, I fay, is a proper Inflance of Repen- 
tance, and indeed fo NecefTary a Part of it, that it will 
be defective, and imperfed without it. For as Repen- 
tance implies a Convidion of xMind that we have done 
amifs, fo as to be truly Sorry for what we have done, 
and heartily wifh that w'e had not done it, I cannot fee 
how any Man's Repentance can be faid to have work*d 
this Change of mind in him, when he is juftly chargeable 
with ading injurioufly by another. F.or altho' a Man's 
Judgment may be convinced, that a moral Change of 
Life is religious and neceffary, yet no fuch Change can 
be conceived to be effe^flual, till a plenary Satisfa£l[ion 
be made to the injured Perfon, for all the unjuft Actions 

O he 

98 The Art of Trying well. 

he has done him, and by undoing thofe A£ls of Inju- 
ftice, by an equitable Reftitution. Nay, to come more 
clofe to the Subjeifl : All our holy Purpofes and Refo- 
lations of Amendment, which are the Foundation of 
Repentancey will come to nothing, without a Reparation 
made for the wrongs we have done to. others: For is it 
pofTible to Refolve in good earneft, and yet let fall this 
Refolution afterwards. A bare Refolution, unlefs it 
produces the good Effedls it ought, in repj^,|ring the 
Injuries done, is no part of that Repentance which 
workcth Salvation, 

As to the Manner and Means of Refiimiony it would 
be endlefs to prefcribe any fixed and determinate 
Rules. The Flrfi Enquiry, in Cafes of Injury or Ju- 
ftice done, is, in what Refpe^l we have Injured others, 
and to proportion, as far as we are Able, the Repara- 
tion to the Wrongs. If we have any way injured our 
"Neighbour in his Eflate^ by any fraudulent Contrails, 
or other unfiir ways of Dealing, we mufl: make it a 
voluntary Art to do him Right, without any Com- 
pulfion from the Law. If we have injured him in his 
good Name^ by Calumny and Evil-fpeaking, we are 
obliged to own the Offence, and ask Forgivenefs, and to 
make our Recantation as publick as the Scandal. 

And as thefe Rules, are to be Obferved in the Manner 
of our Reftitution, fo are there others alfo to be Ob- 
ferved as to the Meafures of it. Now the Meafures 
and Degrees of Reftitution muft rife and fall, in pro- 
portion to the Injuries done. If we cannot make Sa- 
lisfaftion in returning the very lame Thing we were 
entruftcd with, we muft make amends by way of 


The Art of T>jwg i^'cll. 99 

Equivalent. Where no Reftitution can be made of 
the Thing, and no certain Valuation can be taken of 
it, in fuch Cafes we mufl: take care to make our Efti- 
mate accordingly *, rather exceeding in the Meafures 
of Reftitution becaufe every Degree we fall fhort in 
our Compenfations continues an Injury ftilL 

I fhall clofe this Chapter with this Obfervation ' 
That Amendment and forfaking the Fault, on the Ac- 
count of what our Saviour hath done and fuffered for 
us, will procure Pardon for any *Sin, by which we 
have offended none but God *, but in all A(fls of In- 
jury and Injuftice, we muftnot only amend our Faults 
to pleale God, and acknowledge them to appeafe Men, 
but we muft alio reftore the Spoil, and return the 
Injuries we have done unto them. 


"the Twelfth Rule Prefaratory to a haify Death, Is 
To be admitted by Baptifm into the Chrlflian 

I Have, in the preceeding Chapters, explained the Na- 
ture of the Chriftian Graces and yirtues conducive 
to a holy Life, and by confequence to a happy Death: 
I fhall now go on to condder the Nature and Servicea- 
blenefs of the Two ChrijUan Sacraments^ and the. Holy 
Inftitution of Confirmation^ appointed by our Saviour 
for thatpurpofe. The two Sacraments are the Means or 
Inftruments which God makes ufe of, by the Office of 
his Miniflers, either for the Conveyance, or Increafe 

O 2 of 

loo The Art of Trying well. 

of Grace, totJ^ofe who worfhip him in Faith and Holi- 
nefs. The fpiritaal Priviledges and Advantages of re- 
ceiving thefe Holy Sacraments, are thefe : By our Ini- 
tiation into the Church by Baptifm^ we become Mem- 
bers of that Church into whofe Communion we are 
admitted, are tranHated to the Dignity and Honour of 
being the Sons of God, and by that means are entitled 
to an Inheritance of the Kingdom of Heaven. The 
Priviledges and Advantages of receiving the ffoly Com- 
TTiunlon^ are, i;'?, A general Pardon and Remiffion of 
Sin. And, A Conveyance of a larger fliare both 
of God's preventing and ajftji'ing Grace. 

The firft Sacrament I fhall enlarge upon, is that of 
Baptifm *, becaufe this Sacrament does, in the order of 
Time, precede the other, inafmuch as no Man can be 
rightly qualified and prepared to receive the Holy Com- 
mimicn before he is baptlz,ed. The Nature and EflTence 
of Chrijlian Baptifm^ confifts in thefe three Particulars: 
ly?. In a fincere Confe/iion and Acknowledgment, ei- 
ther by our felves or others, of the whole CathoUck 
Faith, and all the Particulars of it. zdly^ In a Renun- 
tiation of all the Temptations of the World, the Flefh, 
and the Devil. And, 3^/)/, In a Readmiffion into a 
State of Grace and Favour of God, by being admitted 
into his Church ^ for every one, who is baptized, is 
freed thereby from the Servitude of the Devil, is adop- 
ted into the Glorloi<^ Liberty of the Sons of God, and 
made Partaker of the Divine Grace. 

Thefe Particulars do, in feme meafure, fpecify to us 
the fpiritual Priviledges which every Man is entitled to 
by virtue of Chrlftian Baptifm. The firft Particular of 


The Art of Dying well. i o i 

which iS a fmcere Confeffion, either by our felves, or 
others, of the whole Catholick Faith, and all the par- 
ticular Branches of it : For it is impoflible that any 
Pcrfon can be admitted into the Chrifiian Churchy 
without a publick Acknowledgment of the Chriflian 
Faith > and that not only in fome particular Inftances, 
but in a general Confeffion of it, of which Baptifm is 
a Seal. And here ! cannot but lament, with the deep- 
tft Concern, the fliameful Ignorance of the meaner fort 
of People aniongft us, who are fo far from confeffing 
the Articles of the Chrifiian Fdth^ that they cannot 
pronounce their Creed^ or at leafl: are wholly infenfible 
of the meaning of it ; and yet to believe all the Arti- 
cles of the Chriftian Faith, is what they folemnly pro- 
mised by their Fouchers in Baptifm to do. Now if 
Chrifiy as St. Paul aflures us, dwells in our Hearts by 
Faithj Eph. iii. 17. that is, if a Man cannot be ac- 
counted a Chriftian , without believing the Doftrines 
of Chriftianity, how can he dwell in the Hearts of 
thofe, who have only a general and confufed Notion 
of the Articles of the Chrifiian Faith^ without any cor- 
dial Senle or Belief of them ? And // God purifies our 
Hearts by Faiths as St. Peter informs us, A^ts xv. 9. 
how wholly unfit for fo Divine a Refidence is that 
Heart, or that Soul, which believes not Jefus Chrifiy 
and his Doftrine, altho' he has received the outward 
and vifible Sign, or Form of Baptifm. 1 amnowfpeak- 
ing only of Adult Perfons *, for, as to the Cale of 
fantsy my Opinion is, that they are juftified by the 
Free Grace of God, without any good Works of their 
own however, if they come to Riper Years, they 


loa The Art of Dying "noell. 

are obliged to take the Promifes, made by their Sure* 
tiesj upon themfelves, and to believe and confefs pub- 
lickly, in the Church, all the Articles of the Chrifiian 
Faith for, as St. Faul writes, With the Heart Man be^ 
lieveth unto Righteoufnefs^ and with the Mouth Confejfion 
is made unto Salvation : Rom. x. lo. 

But, zdly^ A folemn Renunciation of all the Temp- 
tations of the World, the Flefti, and the Devil, is an- 
other Particular of Chrifiian Baptifm. And indeed 
whether we confider the Nature and Purity of a 
Chriftian Church, and what a ftricl Difcipline and Se- 
verity of Life it requires of its Members, it is neceffa- 
ry that fome previous A fTurances fhould be given either 
by our felves, or others, to that purpofe. The Rea- 
fon why the Church was pleafed to appoint Vouchers 
Was, that in cafe of any Negleft, or the Death of the 
Parents, a farther Provifion might be made for the 
Care and Education of Children, by thofe who at the 
time of Baptifm^ were tied to them by a fpi ritual Re- 
lation. The Charge given by the Minifter in Baptifntj 
To the Vouchers or Sureties^ is very folemn and impor- 
tant *, and the Promifes made on their Parts, feem to 
me to carry in them the Force and Obligation of a 
Religious, or Sacramental Oath, To renounce the De- 
vil and all his Worh-i the vain Pomp and Glory of the 
Worlds with all covetom Defires of the fame^ and the 
carnal Defires of the FleJJj^ is an Engagement ratified 
and confirmed in the more immediate Prefence of God, 
and in the Face of the whole Congregation *, the Breach 
of which, as the one are WitnefiTes of, fo the other 
will furely judge, and condemn, and punifh. 


The Art of T)ymg weU. lo^ 

A third Particular of Ckrijlian Baptlfm, or rather 
the great Priviledge or Advantage of it, is, a Readmiilioa 
into a State of Grace and Favour with God, from a 
State of Sin, of Slavery, and of Death, by being in- 
itiated into Chrift s Church. O the inexhauftible Riches 
of the Bounty and Goodnefs of God ! O invaluable, O 
wonderful, O infinitely extenfive Priviledge ! Such in- 
conceivable Mui^ificence does equally furpafs our 
Thougjits, as it exceeds our Admiration. Good God ! 
who is able to comprehend, who will not be filled 
with Surprize and Aftonilhmcnt, nay, who will not 
diflblve into holy Tears, into Tears of Extafy and 
Joy, when he contemplates fuch an amazing Inftance 
of Divine Love ? / ir^, before I was bapnzedj in a 
State of Captivity^ a Child of the Bevil^ fubje^ to ths 
Power of Hell and Death *, but fee the wondrous Change 
effe^ed by Baptifm ! I am now redeemed from Servitude 
and Sin ; / am admitted into the facred Fellovsflnp cf 
Chrift' s Church lam become a Child of Gody and am 
entitled to an Inheritance of his gloripm Kingdom, Hot9 
can I refieB on fuch ineftimahle Adv ant ages y and dare to 
he ungrateful f Thefe devout Refle£lions, efpecially in 
young Men, will prevent the Prevalency of thofe Vi- 
ces their tender Age is moft expofed to, and will lay 
all Temptations, of what l^ind foever, dead at their 
Feet. For what is the principal Caufe of all that Rafh- 
nefs and Folly to which young Men are generally ad- 
dicted, but Carelefnefs and Inconfideration ? Why is 
it that they give a Loofe to their Appetites in the Pro- 
fecution of their Pleafures, , and indulge themfelves to 
the full in the Pridej, and Eafe, and Luxury of Life, 


104. The Art of Xfying wel/. 

but that they did not confider the Dignity, and Ho- 
nour, and Advantages, they were entitled to hyChrifiia?z 
Baptifm ^ This, 1 would obferve, is the Reafon why 
fo many young Men, without any Fear of Danger, pr 
any Senfe of Guilt, runfohaftily down the precipice 0^ 
Vice, becaufe they are fallen from that Grace which 
was conferred on them by Baptifm^ and think it not 
good, in the Language oi t\iQ?i(y^hQt Jeremiah^ to hear 
the Toke in their Touth ; Lam. iii. 27. To encreafe and 
improve that ftare of Divine Grace, which was beftovy- 
ed on us by Baptifm \>y a fincere Repentance to re- 
nounce rhe Devil and all his Works, to return to the 
Service of our Lord and Mafter, and to continue in 
his Worfliip to our Lives end, is the only means to 
live righteoufly, to die peaceably, and to reign tri- 
umphantly in Happinefs and Glory. 

Now in order to behave our felves, in this KefysQ:^ 
with Piety and Prudence, it will be highly neceflary 
that every Man confider the Duties and Obligations 
which the Sacrammt of Baptifm lays upon him. The 
myflical wajbing nway of Sin^ expreffed in Baptifm^ de- 
notes to him a great Purity and Innocence of Life 
and Gonverfation. The continual Attempts made by 
the Devil upon the moft immaculate Virtue, are /b 
many Obligations for Continuance and Refolution to 
keep our felves free from the Pollutions of Sin. A 
modeft and chaft Behaviour, and a Freedom from all 
the Indecencies of a loofe and incontinent Life, are 
the diftinguifhing Charafters of a Member of Chriji*s 
Church, and the brighteft Ornaments of his Profellion. 
The Spots and Blemilhes we contraft by breach of our 


The Art of Dying z^ell. i o 5 

BaptiTmal Covenant-, are only wiped out by true Contri- 
tion, and the Tears of Repentance. 
y The next Duty which the Sacrament of Baptlfm lays 
Mpon every Man, is more general, and extends its felf 
to his whole Conduft, in obliging him to an univerfal 
Righteoufnefs in all his Thoughts^ Words^ and Anions* 
The whole Duty of a Perfon regenerate by Raptifmy is 
fully comprifed in that congratulatory Sentence of Sc. 
¥aul to himfelf *, / have fought a good Fight ^ I have fini- 
fljed my Course ^ I have kept the Faith 2 Tim. iv. 7. 
Thele words exprefs to us, in the fir/l Place, the great 
Bravery and Courage which a Soldier, lifted under 
Chrijl's Banner, ought to exert in fighting againfl the 
World J the FleJJj^ and the DeviL They denote to us, 
in the next Place, the Courfe or Race^ which every 
one, who is admitted into Chrift's Church, ought to 
run, and his Continuance in fo doing, till he arrives at 
his Journey's end. They import, in the Lajl Place, 
fuch a lively and aftive Faith, as diicovers it felf im 
improving and increafing the Talents which God has 
entrufted us with, in exercifing our felves in our feve- 
ral Employments with Diligence and Honefty, in tak* 
ing care of our own Souls, and the Souls of thofe who 
are committed to our Charge*, and, in fhort, in the 
Performance of all thofe Graces and Virtues, which are 
the Ornament and Beauty of the Chriftian Life. The 
infinitely wife God has fo contrived the Happinefs of 
Men, that tho' he is w^illing to adopt them by BaptiHu 
into a Sonfhip to himfelf > yet in fuch a manner has he 
efFeded this, as is highly conducive to his own Glory. 
There is fomething therefore requir;^d on our parr, to 
■ P entitle 

io6 The Art of Dying well. 

entitle us to the Priviledges of this Sonfhip, in being 
made Heirs of eternal Glory *, and that is a conftant 
and habitual Exercife of our felves in fuch good Works, 
as are wrought in us by the Spirit of God, concurring 
with the Freedom of our own Will : For fuch ample 
PofTe/lions, fuch Crowns, and Scepters, and Kingdoms, 
are not to be obtained by a Life of Eafe, of Merri- 
ment, and Pleafure > but by Induftry and Labour, by 
Care and Vigilance, and a continued Perfeverance in 
Holinefs even unto the Time of Death. 

If a Man therefore, in confequence of the Premifes, 
by calling himfelf to a fevere Account, and looking into 
all the different Stages of his Life, fhall find him- 
felf to have a£ted with that univerfal Integrity, and 
Steadinefs of Principle ; if he has bravely ftood it out 
againft the Allurements of Honour, the Profped of In- 
tereft, the Charms of Pleafure, and the Invitations of 
Senfe ^ if upon fuch a Review of himfelf, he feels 
within hiiii the Applaufes and Congratulations of his 
own Confcience, as having behaved himfelf, in all the 
Duties of Chriftianity, confidently with his Holy Pro- 
feffion, let him triumph with St. Pauly and fay. Hence- 
forth there is laid up for me a Crown of Rlghteoufnefsj 
which the Lord^ the righteom Judge^ JJjall give me at that 
Day ; 2 Tim. iv. 8. If, on the other hand, thro* 
Weaknefs or Cowardice, or thro* Treachery and Bafe- 
nefs, in his Conflifls with his fpiritual Enemies, he has 
difiionourably given Ground, or tamely furrendered 
without Refifi:ance and Oppofition if thro* Inadver- 
tency, Surprize, or Wearinefs, he has flood flill, or 
tired, or laid down in his Chriflian Courfe *, if thro* 


' The Art of Trying ^JoeU. 1 07 

Vanity, Partiality, or any human .Views, he has broke 
thro' the Engagements of his Baptifmd V ?tp, let him 
endeavour to make God his Friend, and his Confcience 
his Friend, by an univerfal Repentance. 


the Thirteenth Rule Frefaratory to a haffy Deaths is ^ 
To vAe upon our felves the Baptifmal Vow, made 
in our Names, by Confirmation. 

THAT Men may rightly underftand the Nature 
of this Holy Inftitution, I fhall go up to its firft 
Original in the time of the ApoflUs. In the Primitive 
Church three extraordinary Gifts of Wifdom, Elo- 
quence, and Charity, in the higheft Degree, were the 
Effeft of this hfiitution *, befides a Power of working 
Miracles for the Converfion of the Heathen World. 
The{e extraordinary Gifts were (Ignified by the Figure 
of the Fiery Tongues^ and the Noife of a rufJnng mighty 
Wind-, which were feen and heard on the Day of Vente- 
cofl j inafmuch as the Light of Fire reprefents Wifdom, 
the Heat of that Fire the Warmth of Charity, the Fi- 
gure of Tongues the Gift of Eloquence, and the mighty 
Sound a Power of acting above the ordinary Courfe of 
Nature. The two latter of thefe Gifts, as they .were 
only neceffary in the Infant-State of the Chriftian 
Churchy are not now communicated to us, but the Gifts 
of Heavenly Wifdom and Divine Love do ftill continue 
and are daily beftowed upon the Members of ChriJFs 
Churchy by the Laying on of the Hands of the Bijhops^ 

P Z who 

io8 The Art of laying well. 

who are the SuccefTors of the Apoftles^ by ferven^ 
Prayer, and their authoritative Benedi£lion. 

The Defjgrt and Intention of the Church in Confir. 
mation^ is^ ThatPerfons, who have been baptized, be- 
ing made fenfible of the Nature and Obligations of their 
Baptifmal Covenant^ fhould renew their Engagements to 
it in their own Pcrfons, in the Prefence of God, and 
in the Face of his Church *, and the fpiritual Advanta- 
ges which accrue to our felves by fo doing are confide- 
rably great: For, m tht firfl Place, the Holy Office 
of Cjijfirmmion^ is a frcfh Obligation to a Chriftian 
Life, or a repeated AfTurance made to God, of ading, 
in all refpec^s, fuitably to our Chriftian Profeffion. In 
rh& fcf:on(i Place, it is an effeftual means of conveying a 
larger nxeafur^ of God's Grace, and Holy Spirit as it 
is, in the third Place, a Sign or Token of Chriftian 
Commnmn^ by laying Men under an indKpenfable Ne- 
ccjliity. pf communicating witb fuch Perfons as Chrljl 
hiiiirelf has appointed to prefide over his Church. 

.j^ut that I may confider the Obligations we lay upon 
obr felves, by virtue of ConfLcmation^ with more Advan- : 
tage, It will be neceffiiry to confider, in the iji Place, 
What jj^/W of Enemies we are like to meet with in our 
Chxiftian Warfare, and in what Manner they make 
tfieir Attempts upon us. And, zdly^ What EfFe£ls the ; 
Office of Confirm^wn has in the Refiftance of them.. 
As to the firfl of thefe Particulars : The Enemies which 
we- renew our Vows in Confirmation to encounter with, 
are the IVonld^ the Flefij and the DeviL The Power 
and Prevalency of thefe fpiritual Enemies of Mankind 
is too fidly evidenced, in that they are .-^le to overbear 


The Art of Dying well. 109 

and beat down the moft vigorous and hearty Refolu- 
tions of the beft Men. The moft Chriftian and He- 
roick Examples of Piety and Holinefs have been forced, 
ia many Inftances, to acknowledge their fuperiour 
Strength, and have been many times overcome in thofe 
Virtues, wherein they conceived themfelves to have 
been moft fecure. The Manner they attack us in, is in 
a great meafure invifible and unknown to us : For we 
wrefile not only againfl Flejfj and Blood *, hut againfi Prin" 
cipalitiesy againfi Powers^ againfi the Rulers of the Dark- 
nefs of this Worlds, againfl fpiritual Wickednefs in High 
Places : Eph, vi. 12. If they find us impregnable in 
one Virtue, they will attempt us in another ^ if we 
ftand firm in our Piety towards God, they will try us 
in our Duty towards our Neighbour *, and if they fuc- 
ceed not there, they lhall make their Efforts by fome 
Allurements to Intemperance and Infobriety in our 
felves. If the World, with all its Pomp and Splendour, 
cannot prevail upon us, the Flefti ftiall join in the Af- 
ftult ; and if we bravely maintain our Ground againft 
the Force of both, Hell it felf will come into the Con- 
federacy, and the whole united Power of the Worlds 
the Flejh^ and the Devil j fhall at once befiege us. 

I come now to confider what Effeds this Holy 
fiitution has in the Refiftance of thefe Enemies : For as 
the Power of thefe fpiritual Enemies is fb great, it will 
require at leaft a more than equal Degree of Strength 
to conquer and fubdue them. Now as Man is not ca* 
pable of fupplying himfelf with fuch a meafure of Di- 
vine Grace, as is fufficient for this purpofe ^ therefore 
God has been pleafed to appoint feveral Inftituted means 


1 1 o The Art of Dying weU. 

both for the Improvement znd Increafe of Grace ; and, 
among others, this of Confirmation, But before any 
Man can be entitled to the Benefits and Advantages of 
it, there are fome Conditions, both before and after^ to 
be performed on his Part, without which he can nei- 
ther be duly qualified to receive it, or to reap any Ad- 
vantage from it. Now the Duty of every Perfon he^ 
fore Confirmation, is to confider fully the Nature of 
thofeVows and Promifes which were made for, him in 
his Baptifmy before he take them upon himfelf : For as 
every Man, by virtue of Confirmation^ renews that 
Covenant which he made with God in his Baptifm, be- 
fore he can be entitled to thofe Priviledges which that 
Covenant promifes to him, he muft confider what is to 
be done on his Part, and the Obligations he lays under 
to do it. 

■ Now the Nature of the Baptifmal Vow or Covenant 
does principally confifl: : ij^, In an entire Renunciation 
of all the Temptations of our fpiritual Enemies, fo as 
to be alw^ays upon our Guard, and watchful againft: 
them, in whatfoever Difguife and Appearance they may 
addrefs themfelves to us. Tis to confider our own 
Weaknefs and Inability, without God's fpecial Grace, 
in refifling thefe Temptations, and the great Force and 
Prevalency of them *, fo as neither to be flattered, nor 
frightened, nor perfuaded to aft upon any unlawful 
Principle of Pridc^ of Inclination^ of Fleafure^ or Ad- 
vantage whatfoever. 

But, zdly^ The Nature of the Baptifmal Fow confifts- 
alib in a firm and well-grounded Belief of all the Arti- 
cles of the Chriftian Faith, without difputing their Au- 

The Art of T)ying well. 1 1 

thority, or enquiring too nicely into the myflerious 
Senfe and Meaning of them ^ looking upon them not as 
the Objefts of our Reafon^ but of our Faith ; believing 
them, becaufe God has revealed them, and accounting 
the Belief of them as the fureft and beft Foundation 
for a holy and a virtuous Life. 

But, The Nature of the Baptifmal Fow or 

Covenant^ does confift in an univerfal Obedience to all 
the Commands of God, and a conftant Perfeverance 
in them.' For the Chriftian Profeffion obliges us not 
only to obey the Laws of God, but obliges us alio to 
obey all of them, and not only fo, but to continue to 
do fo at all Times. The Chriftian Lav^ is a Law of 
Perfeftion, which Perfe£lion would be wanting in that 
Law, if it did not prefcribe Vniverfality and Conliancyy 
which are not only the Ornament, but the Excellence 
and Accompli fhment alfo of all Chriftian Obedience. 

The fpiritual Advantages of this Holy Inftitution, are 
Wifdom and Courage *, Wifdcm to underftand the Per- 
feftion of the Chriftian Law, and Courage and fuperna- 
tural Strength to perform it, in oppofition to all the 
Power of our fpiritual Enemies.' And that a Man may 
inform himfelf with more Certainty, after Confirma- 
tion, whether he has fecured thefe Advantages to him- 
felf, let him exercife himfelf in thefe, and the like En- 
quiries : Do I find my Vriderfla-ading enlighten d by the 
Spirit of Gody in the Difcovery and Knowledge of Divine 
Truth ? Can I diftinguiflj the Preference of Things Tem- 
poral to Things Eternal f Are my fpiritual Capacities en- 
largedf and do I perceive m 7Jiy ftlf any Increafc and Im- 
provmm in that Wifdom which comes jrom above f Jj^i 

' J 

1 1 n The Art of Dying well. 

I empower d by any farther Communications of fupernatw 
ral Strength^ manfully to fight under Chriji's Banner f Or 
have I Courage to hear with Patience the Injuries and In- 
dignities of others f Is my Heart inflamed with the Love 
oj God^ or warmed with a generous Companion for the 
Sufferings arid Misfortunes of others ? Am I dead and 
loji to the Allurements of Senfe ? Can I calm the Refent- 
ments of Anger and pafs hy a Provocation with as much 
Satisfaction as another would execute it upon mef Am I 
willing to he reconciled to my offending Brother f If fo^ J 
have renewed my Baptifmal Covenant with Succefs^ and I 
triumph in the hleffed Confequence of fo doing. 

The Conclufion of the whole is this *, That this fo- 
lemn Renewal of our Baptifmal Covenant by Confirma- 
tion^ is not only a repeated Promife, and in confequence 
a farther Obligation to a Chriftian Life ; but that 'ti^ 
alfo a Pledge of farther Advantages, in that it gives a 
Man a Title to receive the Holy Communion. 


The Laft Rule Preparatory to a haffy Death ^ is. To 
receive frequently the Holy Communion. 

TH E Sacrament of the Eucharifl is an Appoint- 
ment of that Dignity and Excellence, that not 
only Divine Grace it felf, but alfo the very Author of 
Divine Grace is, in a fpiritual manner, contained in it. 
That this Holy Sacrament may prove ferviceable and in- 
ftrumental to the Purpofes of Holy Living and Dying, 
it is neceffiirYj in the firfi Place, That every Chriftian 


The Art of 7)ying wcli. i i ^ 

look upon himfelf as under an indifpenfable Obligation 
to receive it*, according to our Saviours Rule, V?7lefs 
ye eat the Flejh of the Son of Man^ and drink his Bloodi 
j/e have no Life in youj Chap. vi. 53. And, Secondly j 
That he rightly qualify and prepare himfelf for ar wor- 
thy R.eception of it *, that he may avoid that Denunci- 
ation pronounced by St. Paul : fie that eateth and drink- 
eth unworthily^ eateth and drinketh Damnation to himfelf f 
not difcerning the Lord's Body^ iGor.xi. 29^ It has been 
made a ^ueftion by fome, How often it may be neccffary 
for any Man to "Receive this Holy Sacrament And agiinV 
What Preparation is fujficient for a worthy Reception of it. 

As to th^firji of thefe Quefiions, the Anfwer is*, That 
there kave been Different Ufages and Cuftoms in the 
Different Ages of the Chriflian Church as to the Frequen- 
cy of this Duty. In the Primitive Times, they vvere 
very conftant in receiving it : Tis for this Reafon that 
St. Cyprian^ in his Difcourfe on the Lords-Prayer^ ex- 
plains that Petition, Give us this day our dally Breads of 
the Holy Communion*, and believes, that unlefs we are 
prevented by fome lawful Impediment^ We ought to 
communicate Daily. In After- Ages, Upon the Decay 
of Chriflian Piety, People were fhamefully negligent of 
this Solemn Commemoration. Now tho* there is no 
Stated Time mentioned in Scripture^ with regard to the 
Frequency of receiving-, yet I cannot but concur with 
the Opinion of the moft Learned Divines, viz.. That 
it would be a very pious and commendable Pra£lice iri 
the Clergy to receive every Sunday^ as alTo on the more 
noted Feftlvals of the Church. There's a remarkable? 
PaflTage, quoted by fome Writers as the words of Sr. 

1 1 4 The Art of Dying well. 

Aufiin-f to this purpofe^ I neither commend-^ nor do 1 
blame thofiy who receive the Communion daily^yet would I 
perfuade and advife all Chrijiians to communicate every 
Sunday, Now altho' that Book of Eccle/iaftical Opinions^ 
from whence this Sentence is taken, does not feeni to 
be genuine, yet is it of an antient Date, and no way 
repugnant to his Sentiments, who, in his Epijlle to ja» 
muartusy manifeftly gives his Opinion, That thofe Men 
are not miftaken, who judge it proper to communicate 
Daily *, nor thofe, on the other hand, who Idok upon 
themfelves under no Neceflity of receiving fo often^ 
Now if this be the Opinion of St. Auflin in this Point, 
all I would obferve from thence is, That we would by 
no means find fault with thofe, who are of a middle 
Opinion between both, and think it reafonable to Com- 
municate at leaft every Sunday, Su Jerom vtxs entirely 
of the dime mind, as may be gathered from his Commen- 
tary on the Epijile to the Galatians *, where, in his Er- 
pofition of the fourth Chapter^ he has thefe Words : 
j4s it is lawful for us to pray, and to fafi often^ and to 
receive the Communion every Sunday^ &c. This was alfo 
the Opinion of feveral other learned and devout Men. 

I pafs on now to the next Head \ by enquiring what 
Preparation is neceffary for a worthy Reception of this 
Holy Sacrament J th^t Men may receive it to their 
Spiritual Advantage, and not to Judgment and Condem- 
fiation. Now the principal Qualification required in a 
worthy Communicant, is^ That the Soul be actuated 
and enlivened by a Life of Grace, and not, in the Lan- 
guage of St. Paulj that it be Dead in Trefpaffes and Sins. 
It is^ for this reafon that the holy Communion is exhibi- 


The Art of ^yirig well. 1 1 5 

bited to us under the Outward and Vifible Signs of Bread 
zndWine'^ becaufe thefe Elements are the proper Nou- 
rifhment and Refrelhment, not of the Dead, but the 
Living : He that eateth of this Breadj lays our Saviour^ 
/ball live for ever \ John vi. 51. 

But, Secondly y Since this holy Comniemorationof the 
Sacrifice of the Death of Chrift,^ is-rtot only the Spiri; 
tual Food and Nourifhment of the Soul, but is alfo a 
Remedy^ againft all the Diftempers incident to it *, it is 
farther NecefTary, in the Second Place, That whofo- 
ever defires a good State of Spiritual Health, and to b« 
healed of all the Difeafes of the Soul, and efpecially fuch 
Difeafes as are moft Mortal to if, fuch as Luxury, Co- 
vetoufnefs, Pride, and the like, ftiould endeavour to 
Cure them by Repentance. That the BlefTed Sacrament 
is a Medicine for all the Difeales of the Soul, St. Ambrofe 
js very Exprefs in his firjl Book of the Sacraments *, 
who has receivd a Wound^ ftanJs in need of a Cure ^ it is 
Sin that wounds the Soid^theV^enerahle and Heavenly Feajt 
cf Chrtft's* Body and Blood is an effeElual Frefcription 
for it. And St. Bernard^ in his Difcourfe of the Lord's 
Supper^ advifes his Brethren, that whenever they fhall 
obferve their vicious Inclinations, and other Indifpo- 
fitions of the Soul to be healed, they would attribute 
to it Principally to the Virtue and Efficacy of the holy 

But, Laftly Since the Holy Communion is not only 
the fpiritual Food and Nouriftment of the Soul, and an 
dFedlual Cure for all the Difeafes which are incident to 
it ; but alfo becaufe the Great phyfician of Souls is there 
fpiritpally pref^nt 5 it is therefore neceffary, in the 

2 Race, 

1 1 6 The Art of Dying ^isDell, 

Place, that 5(^e not only purify the Soul for fo Divina 
a Refidence, but alfo that he fill and adorn it with all 
the Graces of the Chriftian Life, and efpecially the 
Duties of Faith, Hope, Charity, Juftice, Piety, and 
Devotion. Thefe Ornaments, thefe Heavenly Accom- 
plifliments of Soul, are the beft Furniture, and th^ 
mofl delightful Entertainment for fo Divine a Gueft. 
I fnall only add, That this Heavenly Thyfician, who 
thus condefcends to vifit us in the Elements j)f Bread 
U\6.Wrr2e^ is no lefs than God himfelf, the great Creator 
©f all things-, who, as he includes in his own Nature 
the higheft Degrees of Purity and Perfeftion, fo does he 
delight to dwell only in a fpotlefs and immaculate Soul* 
With what Purity^ fays St. Chryfoflomj ought every Man 
to commemorate fo pure a Sacrifice ? How clean, how in- 
nocent oii^rjt that Hand to he which takes his Saviour in^ 
to it ? IIoTD free from all Ohfcenity and Indecence ought to 
be that A<Uuth.y which is thus purified by this fpiritual Fire 
of Jjiviae Lo^je, \ 

This Duty then of receiving the Holy Cqpim union, 
requiring fuch an entire Purity of Life and Mannersi 
and fo unblemifhed a Converfation, with what Retire- 
ivgnt, with what Severity of Examination ought every 
Man, who intends to communicate, to enter into his 
own Soul, before the All-feeing God, who fearches the 
very Heart and Reins^ and confider thorowly with him^ 
felf, what prefiing Obligations lay upon him to frequent 
the Holy Communion, and what a religious and folemn 
Preparation is required of him for fo holy an Inflitu- 
tion. If by frequenting thefe holy Myftenes, he per-? 
feives the Grace of God to be JJjed abroad in his Heart 


The Art of Trying "well. 1 1 y 

if he obferves his evil Difpofitions to go\ off, and his 
Soul to be daily ftren§then»d and confirmed in the 
Habits of Grace and Holinefs, and that he is arriving, as 
much as poflible, to the Meafure ef the Stature of the 
Fullnefs of Chrifl^ this will excite in him a fpiritual 
Complacency, a holy Triumph, and he will proceed, 
not with a flavifh and a degenerate Fear, but with an 
aweful and humble Reverence in the Service of God. 
If he be of the Number of thofe, who by Shifts and 
dilatory Excufes^ and inconclufive Reafons^ fhall argue 
himlelf into a total Negleft of this Holy Sacrament^ or 
the No-Necefiity of communicating oficn^ or at the 
moft but at the three great Fefiivals of the Year, let 
him conclude himfelf to be in a dangerous State : For 
the Defign of the Church, in obliging all her Members 
to communicate at lead three times in tlie Year, wag 
not intended as an Order, or an Injancflion to commu, 
nicate no oftner, but that they fhould receive fo many 
times at leaft, unleis they would fubje«fl themfelves to 
her Cenfure and Authority. As to thofe Perfons who 
receive the Holy Sacrament^ but only at thofe flated 
Times prefcribed by the Church, it is fadly to be feared 
that they approach the Table of the Lord merely out 
of Cujiom^ or Fear of the Power of the Church, and 
by communicating only upon fuch fervile Principles as 
thefe, 'tis no wonder if they pay no Reverence to 
the Sacraments ^ and that, after receiving, it iiiakes no 
lading Imprefiion upon their Minds. If, in the lafl 
Place, there be any Perfon, whether of tw^ Laity or 
Clergy J who receives the Holy Co-mmunion con flan tly, at 
leaft every Week-^ and yet difcovers in himfelf no Im- 

1 1 8 The Art of jDjing 'well. 

provements in Holy Living. If he ftill retains the 
feme immoderate Love of the World, the fame De- 
fires of Riches, Pleafures, and Preferments nay, if 
he finds himfelf not lefs mortified to the Things of 
Flefti and Senfe, and more aftuated an enlivened with 
an ardent Thirft of Immortality, let him aflure himfelf 
that he is not in a State of Grace and Favour with God, 
but that he has received the Body and Blood of Chri/t 
to his own Condemnation, and that, in this Caft, there 
is a Keceffity for a fpecdy and a fincere Repentance. 

I (hall conclude this Chapter, in recommending to 
you the devout Behaviour of a Man eminent for Holi. 
nefs, mentioned by Bonaventure^ as an Incentive to our 
Coldnefs and Infenfibility at the time of receiving : 

This Good Man, fays he^ burned with an ardent 
" Thirft after this Heavenly Feaft, ftruck with Admi- 

ration of fuch tender, fuch adorable, fuch conde- 
^' fcending Love : He was often at the Table, and he* 

haved himfelf there with that Awe and Reverence, 
'' as had an irrefiftible Influence upon thofe who beheld 

him, when, being filled with the Divine Grace, and 

under a fpiritual Extacy, he tajjed the delicious Feift 
<^ of the Imaiaculate Lamb. 


( "9) 


Art of Dying well. 


C H A p. I. 

The FirflRule Preparatory to a happy Death^ upon the 
Approach of ity is ; To confider the Nearnefs, and 
the Confequences of it. 

N the Beginning of the Firfl Bookj 1 divided 
this Treatife into Two Parts : In the FirA I 
propoled to confider fach Rules for Dym% 
well, as might be of fome Service to us in 
a State of Healthy when Death feemed to be at fome 
Diftance from us. In thQ Second^ which is now upon 
my Hands, I fhall enlarge upon fuch Rules only as 
may be of fome Service, when Death fhall make a nearer 
Approach to us that is, when either by Reafon of Old 
Age we are under a vifible Djcay, or by Reafon of a- 


170 The Art of ^Dying well. 

ny Indifpofition or Cafiialty, we have not, in all Pro- 
bability, any coiifidirable Time to live in the World. 
Isow the fir/l Rule of this kind Teems to me to be the 
Contemplation of Death :, by which I do not barely un- 
derftand fome tranfient and ufelefs Refle£lions upon the 
mortal State and Condition of Man, and the Uncer- 
tainty of human Life, but fuch a praiHiical Confidera- 
tion of it, and the final Confequences of it, upon the 
Minds of Men, as fhall ^vaken them into a Senle of 
themfelves, and put them upon a due Preparafion for* 
their laft Hour. For altho' it be the Duty of every 
Chriftian, in the Time of Healthy to employ himfelf in a 
conftant Thought of Dying *, becaufe in the midji of 
Life we are in Death : yet fuch a Gonfideration, gene- 
rally fpeaking, does not come fo clofe to the Confcien- 
ces of Men, nor make fo Lifting an Impreflion upon 
them, as a nearer Profpe£lj or rather a kind of feeling it 
to fteal daily upon them and the Reafon of this isj 
becaufe Men are more fenllbly afFe£led by a Confidera- 
tion of fuch Objecls as are nearer to them, than of 
fuch as are more Remote, and at fome Diftance. The 
Contemplation of De.ith to a Man in the Bloom and 
Spring of Youth, or in a Confirmed State of Health, is 
too melancholy a Thought it abates the Pleafures of 
Life, and takes off the Relifh of all human Enjoy- 
ments, fo that he can find no time for fuch gloomy 
Confiderations. But when Death, in all its Pomps of 
Terrors, appears vifibly before him, when his Spirits 
begin to fmk, and the whole Body is under a fenfi- 
ble Decay, this awakening Call from Heaven ex- 
cites in him a profitable Confideration of his own 


Th Art of "Dying well. 1 1 1 

Death. Thefe is nothing contributes more to our Im- 
provement in all Arts, than the Exercife and Applica- 
tion of them ^ and tho' Inftruftion and the Force of 
Eloquence may . have fome EfFeft upon the Minds of 
Men, in the Art of Dying well yet there is nothing 
which touches them fo deeply as the Pains and Difeafes 
which ufually attend it. Now, as it is appointed unto 
all Men once to die, and after that the Judgment , to im- 
prove the Gonfideration of Death to the beft Advan- 
tage, it will be neceflary> 

In the 't# Place, Toconfider Death under that natu- 
ral Notion which all Men^have of it, viz., as it implies 
a Difunion or Separation of Soul and Body \ yet fo that 
the Soul, which is an Immortal Principle, fliall, in 
the Day of Judgment, be reunited to the fame indivi- 
dual Body it enlivened here* If Men by Death were 
reduced to a State of Infenfihility, or Annihilation-^ thi 
Inference drawn by the Epicure and the Atheijl would 
be Very juftifiable : Let m eat and drink, for to mor- 
row we die \ i Cor. xV. 32. That there are fuch prac- 
tical Atheijl s, as never employ a ferious Hour in the 
Contemplation of Death no, not when the Pains of 
Death take hold of them, is an Oblervation too com- 
mon to be denied. NoW tho' it is impo/Tible that any 
Man, who has his Senfes about * him, can be fo weak 
as to difpute the Certainty of D^iath ^ yet Experience 
convinces us, that many Men go out of the World in 
fo Thoughtlefs a manner, as if they believed an utter 
ExtinBionoi the whole Man ^ and that no Account was 
to be given of their Anions in a future State. Whereas 
the Separation of Soul and Body is only for a time, and 
not a Divorce for ever. An obftinate Infidelity, and a 

R . ftrong 

1^2 The Art of j)ying well. 

ftrong Refolution of believing only what pleafes usj 
cannot alter the unchangeable Articles of the Chrifllan 
Falthy viz. the RefurreEiion of the Body, and the Life 

It is therefore the higheft Inftance of Divine Wifdom 
to look to the laft I flue andConfequence of Things, to 
confider the Nature of an immortal Spirit j and the Vn- 
ihangeablenefs of that State which Death fhall fend uj 
to. There are certain previous Qualifications and DiH. 
pofitions of the Soul required in every Man for a per- 
fect Enjoyment of Heavenly Glory : To pais from z 
State of Vice to a State of Virtue, is not morally im- 
poflible in this Life, The Time cometh when no Man can 
work. The whole Happinefs of Man depends upon a 
wife Management of thofe Talents which God has en- 
trufted him with in this time of Probation j and wholb- 
ever dies in a State of Enmity with God, is entitled to 
eternal Condemnation \ but whofoever dies the Friend 
of God, and Heir of the Kingdom of Heaven, can ne- 
ver fall from that Eminency of Grace and Glory. 

But, idly-f It is not only a Chriftian Duty to confider 
Death in its own Nature-, as it implies a Separation of Soul 
and Body but to confider it alfb in the Circumjiances and 
Confequencesoi it and therefore it is neceflary, in the 
Second Place, to confider the Uncertainty of Death, I 
niean as to the Time of it : For this Confideration of 
Death, as to the Time of it, is one of the principal Ar- 
guments for a religious Watchfulnefs, and a conftant 
Preparation for it. This is the fame Reafon which our 
BlefTed Saviour himfelf makes ufe of to the fame pur^ 
pofe, in the Parable of the Tj^n Firgins : Watch therefore^ 
for ye know neither the Day^ nor the Hour when the Son 


The Art of Dying well. i 

0f Man Cometh Mat.xxv. 13. The Divine Wifdom, 
unfearchableto all, is fometimes pleafed to fend a deli- 
berate Summons, and to give Men Time and Opportu- 
nity of preparing for their latter end, by a lingering 
Sicknefs *, but, generally fpeaking, this is not the Cafe 
of many : And yet the fame infinite Wifdom, for Rea- 
ibns beft known tohimfelf, prevents others, by a fudden 
Deathyfrom making fo fuitable a Preparation. Whether 
this be done, as it feems highly probable, to warn the 
Living *, 0¥ whether the Sinner has outliv'd the Overtures 
of Divine Grace or whether, as is fometimes the Cafe 
of good Men, they are already prepared for our Lord's 
Coming, it is not very material to enquire : For if it 
be certain that Men muft die, and if it be no le(s un- 
certain when they muft die that is, vrhethcr fooner or 
later J the moft religious Ufe we can make of thefe Re- 
fle6lions, is to have our Lights burning^ and our Lampi 
trimmedy without the leaft Hefitation or Delay. This 
is highly reafonable upon a double Account : For, in 
the firfl Place, if we negleft the prefent Opportunity, 
it is very uncertain whether God will be fo kind to us, as 
to allow us Time to prepare our felves hereafter, or 
not. And, Secondly j If we are unwilTmg at prefent to 
qualify our felves for a happy Death, it may with good 
Reafon be queftioned, whether we fhall not only be 
more unwilling, but alfo more unable to do it at ano- 
ther time. But, Thirdly^ To improve the Contempla* 
tion of Death more effeftually, it will be neceffary to 
confider the Confequences of it. This will have a ftrong 
Influence upon Men, in a ftrift Enquiry into, and tho- 
rough Examination of their own Confciences : For he 
that confiders rightly that he fhall certainly die, and 

R 2 tha? 

17^ The Art of Trying isoeU. 

that after Death he muft give an Account to God of aU 
h\s Thought Words ^ and AEtions^ will, in confequence 
of fuch a Belief, ufe his beft Endeavours to die well, 
that he may be able to give a good Account of them. 
Now it is impofllble for any Man to give any good Ac- 
count of his Behaviour in thefe refpefls, who does not, 
either endeavour to keep his Confcience clear of the" 
Guilt, or purify it from the Pollutions of Sin. The 
moft efFe<flual means to keep a good Confcience, or to 
purify a Wone, is frequently to enquire into it ^ af 
whether a Man perceives himfelf to increafe daily in aH 
the Principles of Virtue and Holir^fs ? or whether he> 
lofes Ground by the Force and Prevalency of his fpiri-ii 
tual Enemies ? Whether his Averfion to Sin grows 
ftronger than it was formerly, and his DifpOfitions ta 
Holinefs are more habituated and confirmed ? If, upon 
thefe ' Enquiries, a Man finds himfelf to have a£led in no 
Inftances againft the Judgment of his own Q)nfcienGe, 
a continual Spring of Triumph and finCere Delight will 
refrefh his Soul ^ if, on the other hand, he wounds or 
pollutes his Confcience with the Guilt of any Sin, e(pe- 
cially of any willful, ; prefumptuous and deliberate Sin, 
his own Mind Will rife in Judgment again him, and gail 
him with the fad Remembrance of it : In all thy Works^ 
^xysth.^Wiflmany confid,er thy latter End^ and thou fijcdt 
never do ctmifs \ that is, if a Man coiifiders that - Death 
determines his everlafting State as toVHappinefs or Mife^ 
ry, he ^ will aft WithWarinefs and Prudence, and con^ 
6der beforehand what will be the Confequences of fodo- 
ing, as that he muft give an Account of it to God, both 
in^ the Hour of Diath, '»id in Dsiv of Judgment : 


The Art of T)ylng <st)eU. j a 5 

But on This Subjeft I lhall enlarge more fully in the 
following Chapter^ 


'The Second Rule TrejaraUry to a happy Death, upon th& 
j^fproach of it, is: To confider that God will call 
Men to an Account, for all their Aftions, in the 
Day^ of Judgment. 

THERE is a twofold Judgment ^ according to the 
Opinion of Learned Men, which every Man mud 
undergo: The Firfi is called, the Particular Judgment j 
by which the Soul of every individual Man is called 
to an Account, immediately upon its Separation front 
the Body by Death ; The Second is called, the General 
Judgment, by which the whole Body of Mankind fliall 
be called to an Account at the final Confummation of all 
Things. Who can forbear, in the Contemplation of a 
Future Judgment, to break forth and fay ? O Joyful 
Dreadful Day ! to the Righteous a Day of Triumph and 
Exultation-, to the Wicked a Day of Darknefs, of Con- 
fufion, and Trembling of Heart. The Confideration 
both of a Particular and General Judgment is highly 
ferviceable to the Purpofes of Holy Dying. 

The Opinion of fome learned Divines, and which in- 
deed feems to me very "credible, upon this Subjed, is^ 
That Chrifi, who is the Supreme Judge of every Man 
at the Time of his Death, does fignify the Sentence he 
palTes upon him either by the Minifiry of Angels, or 
fome Invifihle Revelations to the Soul, immediately upon 
its Separation and that the Souls of good Men are at- 

15 6 The Art of Trying well. 

tended by Angels into the Manfions of tlie Blefled ; and 
the Souls of the Wicked, by a Power given them from 
God, are carryed down to Hell. This Judgment pafTes 
upon every Man, in the very Inftant of his Dljolution ^ 
the Judge, who knows aft things, and refides in all 
Places, being then prefenf, the Devil who is called in 
Scripture, The Accufer of the Brethren, and who is 
more than ordinary bufy with theiSouls of Men, juft up* 
on their Separation, is ready as an Evidence the Con- 
ference of Man, which after its Departure from the Bo- 
dy, can neither be deceived by Ignorance, or ftifled by 
Obftinacy, or impofed upon by falfe Reafoning, is 
prefent as a Witnefs ^ either to acquit, or condemn 
him, The Teftimony of this Witnefs is true and im- 
partial, and will inform Men, whether they have dy'd 
in a State of Grace and Favour with God, or are under 
the Sentence of Gondemn^^tion *, fo that there is no real 
Hindrance why this Judgment may not be imn^ediately 
executed upon them. This, 1 obferve, is what is gene, 
rally called the Particular Judgment, m Contra-diftin£lion 
to that General Judgment which fhall pals uponall Men 
at the Laft Day, before Angels and Men, 

But as this Particular Judgment is not a fufficient 
Vindication of the Goodnefs and Juftice of God in his 
Proceedings with Mankind', I lb all, therefore, aflign 
fome Reafons why God has thought it neceflary to ap- 
point a General Judgment, that every Man, according to 
St. Paulas words, may receive the Things done in the Bo- 
dy, rohether it he Good or EviL And the Ftrfi Reafon, I 
ihall give, why God was pleafed to appoint a General 
Judgjnent was, to vindicate the VVifdom and Goodnefs of 
his ov7n Providence, in the feemingly unequal Diftri- 


The Art of ^jwg well. I a -7 

butidns of it. The Profperity of wicked Men, and the 
Sufferings and Affiiaions which befal the Good, have 
been the common Argument of Atheifls and Infidels-, 
againft the Wifdom and Juftice of Divine Providence. 
Is it, faythefe Men, confiftent with Infinite Wifdom, 
to punifti Virtue, and reward Vice ? Does God dif- 
penfe a greater Share of Temporal Felicity upon Un- 
righteous Men, than he does upon the Righteous? Nay 
does he permit them many times to triumph and in- 
fult over them, and that too upon the Account of their 
Righteiufnefs ? Where's the Juftice and Equity of fuch a 
Procedure as this ? Where's his Omnifcience, that he does 
not know this, or his Juftice that he does not amend 
lb partial an Inequality? Now to convince Mankind of 
the Unreafonablenefs of this Ohje^ion^ and that he go- 
verns the World with equal Wifdom and Juftice, there 
is a Day of Retribution fixed, when all thefe Differences 
of outward Life and Circumftance (hall be adjufted, be- 
fore the whole World. Virtue, which is now in Di- 
ftrefs, fhall then lift up its Head with Triumph and 
Vice, now it may be in State and Figure, ftiall fink into 
Puniftiment and Confufion. The whole Creation of 
Men ftiall fee the amazing Change , and give the general 
Atteftation^ Righteous art thou, Lordj becaufe thou 
haft judged thus Rev. xvi. 5. 

But, idly^ Another Reafon why God was pleafed to 
appoint a Ger^eraljudgmefit^ was*, that Chr^'/i-^ who fuf- 
fered aa unjuft Judgment from Men, and was, by a 
Sentence grievoufly fevere, condemned, and put to Death, 
might give the moft publick Proof of his own Inno- 
cence and Power, in fitting upon a lofty Tfirone to 
judge others. All his Faftings and Tears, all his exqui- 


i 18 th Art of t>yingwelt; 

fite Sufferings both of Body and Soul, in his Agony anj 
in his Death, will then receive a vifible Compenfation ^ 
and the Eminency of that Dignity he (hall be advanced 
to in that Day, fhall confirm thelnjuflice of his Suffer- 
ing$. All the Sons of jiddm fhall fall down in Obe- 
dience and Adoration before him, and all Nations Jhall do 
him Service, This Reafon is afiigned by St. Paul^ as 
theCaufe of our Saviour's Exaltation*, that having hum- 
bud him f el ft and became obedient to Death ^even the Death 
of the Crofs therefore God alfo hath highly exaltod him^ 
and given a Name that is above every Name *, That at the 
l^ame of Jefus every Knee fijould bow^ of Thmgs in Hea. 
*ven-i and Things in Earth j and Things under the Earth 'f 
and that every Tongue fhould confefs^ that Jefns Chrifi is 
Lordy to the Glory of God the Father PhiLii. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

A Third Reafon why God was pleafed to appoint a 
General Judgment^ was that a full Retribution may be 
made to good Men in the Completion of their Happi* 
neft. There are fome Ingredients wanting to a perfe£^ 
andcompleat Happinefs before- the final Sentence is 
paffed upon Mankind. The fplendid Appearance of My- 
riads, in their glorified and fpiritualized Bodies, and the 
30int Harmony of fo many Voices uniting in fpiritual 
Songs, will be farther Additions of future Glory. 

But, Fourthly^ Another Reafon why God was pleafed 
to appoint a General Judgment ^ was *, To make the moft 
publick Difcovery of all Hypocrify and Difiimulation, 
and to punifh it in the moft dreadful manner. The Arts 
and little Subtleties which Men make ufc of to impofe 
upon the World, efpecially in the Appearances ot Vir- 
tue, as they are almofl without Number, fo are they 
many times invifible, and therefore undifcoverable by 


The Art of Dying ^eU^ 12^ 

h. The Bounds of Virtue and Vice border fo near up- 
on one another, that it is fometinies difficult to makd 
any Diftinftion between them nay; indeed, it is often 
Smpoflible to do fo, unlefs we wef-e alfa acquaintect 
With theCircuiiiftances, and coilld enter into the Hearts 
and Confciences of Men. When Men ad under the 
Covert and bifguife of Religion, the very Shew of Ho: 
linefe is apt to blind the tJriderftanding^ and render u§ 
Vvholly lincapable to difcover the Defign. Thefe Men, 
how righteoufly foever they may feem to live, yet die in 
a very dangerous State ^ in as much as Hypocrify and 
Diflimulation are at leaft a^ difpleafing to God, as open 
Immorality arid Prbphanenefs. Now, in order to dif- 
cover true Religion from the Pretences of Infincerity, 
it is neceffary, that a Time (hould be fixed, wherein a 
full Enquiry Ihall be made into the Ends and Defigns^ 
and Circumftances of all the Anions of Men, and a vi- 
fible Diftinftion made in the Rewards and Punifhments 
of them; 

A Fifth Reafon why God was pleafed to appoint a Day 
of General Judgment^ was^ That the Souls and Bodies of 
Men Ihould be judged together: For as the Soul and 
Body are inftrumental to each other in the Commifliion 
of Sittj or the. Exercife of Virtue, it is Reafonable that 
they ihould fliare in the fame Rewards, or Punifh- 
ments with one another. Now, as the Soul only gives 
an Account by itfelf in the Particular Judgment of every 
Man at the time of his Death, there is a Neceflity that^ 
a farther Account ftiould be given after the Reforrei^lion^ 
when it is once more united to the Body. 

A Sixth 

J The Aft of Dying well. 

A Sixth Reafon why God was pleafed to appoint a 
General Judgment^ was^ not only that thofe good> or. 
evil A<n:ionSj which were done by us in the time o^ 
Life, might receive their juft Rewards and Punifli- 
mentsj but alfo, to reward and punilh us for the good 
or evil Confequences of thofe Aftions, after the time of 
Death: For it is morally certain, that Men are capable 
of doing Good, and doing Evil after they are dead. 
Thus for Inftance^ the Munificent Founders of Coileges 
and Hofpitalsy whereby the Advantages of Heixth, of a 
learned and religious Education are deriv'd down to a 
late Poilerity, and whofe Benefactions, it may be, as 
being very Confiderable, and confequently more Diffu* 
five are the Caufes and Inftruments of much Good to 
Mankind, are entitled to the Reward of their Bounty 
and Beneficence. This alfo is the Cafe of thofe, who, 
for the Improvement of ufeful Knowledge, or the Ad- 
vancement of Religion, publijh any thing whereby the 
common Good, or the Salvation of Mens Souls, even for 
Ages to come, may be any w^ys promoted. There are 
not wanting alfo, on the other hand, thofe, who, by 
Trinting Lend-, and Atheiflical^ and Seditiom Books and 
FamphletSy poifon Men with vicious and rebellious Prin- 
ciples, even when they are in their Graves*, nor thofe 
who ered Play-Houfes^ or any other Tlaces of Vdawful 
Diverfion for the Entertainment of Mankind. Since 
therefore, in the final Confummation of all things, 
there will be an univer(al Enquiry made into all the Ac- 
tions of Men from the Foundation of the World, it 
follows, by a very Natural Confequence, that Cogni- 
sance will alfo be taken of thofe Anions, and the Good 


The Jirt of T)ying 'well. 1 5 f 

or Evil of them-, wMchy tho' not properly our own, 
Will be imputed to us, as being in fome meafure the 
Caufes and Inflrumem Of them. 

Thefe are the Reafons why, befides the T articular 
%dgmm of every individual Man, at the time of his 
Death, God was pkaf^d to appoint a General judgment 
at the end of the World! But before I difmifs this 
Subje^, it will be neceffary, ly?, To explain farther 
who tha) Terfon is who fhall fit as Judge at this dread- 
ful Tr/^aW, zdly-t To confider the Vlace from whence 
he comes to execute this great Commiffion, and the 
/'/<«r^ where this fhallbe done. I lhall fay foms- 

tliihg of the Verfons who are to be. judged. And, Lafl. 
ly^ I lhall take fome Notice of the final Sentence which, 
at that Timcy lhall be palTed upon all Men. 

In the ift Place, I lhall confider the Terfdn who is 
to l!e the Judge, and that is our BlelTed Lord and Sa- 
viour Je[m Chrifi. The Eternal Son of God, who 
knows all the Anions of Men, and will pafs Sentence 
upon them with the ftrifteft Juftice and Impartiality, 
lhall decide the everlafi:ing State of Mankind. He lhall 
defcend from the Throne of his Glory in a bright and 
fhining Cloudy as he himfelf afiures us, Mat, xxv. 31, 
32. When the Son of Majt fiall come in his Glory^ and a(l 
the holy Angels with hiffty then Jhall he fit ufon the Throne 
of his Glory : And before him fhall be gathered all Na- 
tions \ and he JJjall feparate t^hem from one another^ as a 
Shepherd divideth his Sheep from the G oops. This was the 
CommilTion given by God himfelf as St. Teter tells us. 
That it was He, rpho wa; ordained of Gody to be the Judg^ 

1 5 01 The Art of ^jin^ weli. 

of Quick and Dead ^ kdi% x. 42. St. Vaul confirms the 
Culie Doftrine \ Afts^vii. 31. God hath appointed a Day^ 
in the which he will judge the World, in liighteoufnefsy by 
that Man whom he hath ordained 5 whereof he hath given 
XSurance ur^to all Mcn^ in that he hath raifed him from 
the Dead* And St. John in his - Gofpel, chap, v. 22, 27- 
expreffes himfelf to the fame purpofe : The Father 
i^^dgeth no Man^ , kut hath committed all Judgment unto 
the Son y and hath given ■ hij^n Authority to execute Judg- 
ment becavje he is the Son of Man, , • 

But, zdly^ I fliall now confider the Tlace from 
whence this Judge fiiall come to execute this great Com- 
mifilon, and the Vlacc alfo where he fhall fix hisaweful 
Tribunal, that .he niay .be feen and heard by th|e whole 
ftody of 'Mankind \ and that the Juftice of his Sentence 
may be ratified' and confirmed by, the univetlal "Voice of 
all Nations. Npw, the Place, our Lord defcends from, 
upon this important Occafion, is the Throne of God, 
fcated in tht highefl: Heavens, where he now fits in 
Glory at his right'Hand. The Vlace hefhall defcend to 
is th,e lowefl Region of the Air, 'where he will vifibly 
q:e(fl his Throne in the Sight of the whole World. 
This is part of the Dsfcription given by the Judge 
hinifelf of the State and Grandeur of that Day ^ 3> 
jh all fee the Son of Man coming in the Clouds of Heaven, 
And St. Vaid glvs^s us a more particular Account of the 
great Circumftances that attend it : The Lord himfelf 
fjftll defcend from Heaven with a Shout^ with the Voice 
of the Archangel^ and with the Trump of God \ and then 
fijall vfe he caiight i:p together with them in the Clouds-, to 


The Art of Dying welt. | ^ ^ 

ff}eet the Lord in the Air : i ThefT. 4. 16, 17. This is 
wliat was alfo foretold by the Prophet Joel? I will gather 
all NationSy and bring them into the Valley of Jehofliaphat, 
and there mil I plead with them Chap. iii. 2. It is ge- 
nerally concluded from thefe words, That the General 
Judgment^ in the Laft Day, will be held in the Valley 
of Jehofljophat hoth becaufe the word Jehojhophatj in 
the Hebrew-, fignifies The Judgment of God, as alfo be- 
caufe this Valley is near to Jerufalem, on the Eaft-fide 
of the 'kmple, as St. Jerom teftifies in his Commentaries 
op the Chapter above-mentioned. Befides, there is no 
Situation, in the whole Body of the Earth, fo conve- 
nient for fo great a Tranfaftion^ for from hence we 
have a full Profpeft of the City f Jerufalem, where 
our Saviour preached his Gofpel, and foretold himlelfi 
that the General Judgment fliould be. From hence al- 
fo we have a View of Mount Calvary, the Place where 
Chrifli was crucified and of Mount Olivet, from whence> 
after he had triumphed over Death and the Grave, he 
afcended to his Father. To this Tlace, attended with 
an innumerable Retinue of Angels, will our Lord de-» 
fcend when, in the Language of the Prophet, Thou- 
fands of Thoufands Jfjall minifler unto him, and Ten Thou" 
fand Times Ten Thoufand JJjall fland before him : Dan. vii. 
10. This, I believe, is the loweft Account of the 
Number of thofe Blefled Spirits which fhall then attencf 
him ; For, according to the Opinion of Dionyfius the 
Areopagite, and Thomas Aquinas, the Number of An^ 
gels does far exceed the Number of all Corporeal Be- 
ings. All this Augufl: AfTembly, clothed in fpiritugX 
and refined Bodies, will adfl a farther Magnificence to 


his IIluftriou§ Appearance, according to that ExprefHori" 
of St. John : After this I beheld^ and^ lo ! a great Mui* 
titude', which no Man could number j $f all Nations^ and 
Kindredy and People^ and Tongues^ flood before the 
Throne^ and before the Lamby clothed ttiirh white Robes'^ 
and' Palms in their Hands : Rev. Vii. 9. 

The next thing to be confidered, is, the Terfons 
who are to he judged *, and that is the whole Body of 
Mankind from the Creation of the World. The great 
Difference and Diftinftion of Men, as to outward Cir^ 
cumftance§ of Fortune, which the prefent State an<t 
Order of Thin^, make it neceflary fhould be pre- 
ferved in the World, ihall then be entirely loft, in 
the only Difcriminations of Sin and Punifhment, and- 
of Grace and Glory. For as every Man is capable of 
difcerning betyveen Good and Evil, and of ailing fuita- 
bly to fuch a. fCnowledgc, and of giving an Account qf 
all the A(ftions of his Life, it is reafonable to believe 
that fuch an Account will he, demanded of him. With 
what Palenefs, with what Trembling, with what Con- 
fufion and Convulfion of Thought, will all wicked Men 
appear, on that dreadful Day, in the Sight of God, of 
Angels, and of Men ? With what holy Chearfulnefs 
and Courage will all righteous Men ftand before their 
Judge, fecure in their own Innocency, and having a 
Foretaft of thofe Joys they are juft entring into ? But 
I pals on to fay fomething, 

^hly^ Of the Final Sentence it felf, which fhall then 
pais upon all Men. In this general Confummation of 
2.11 things, that the juftice and Equity of the Divine 
Proceedings may be manifefted to the whole world, the 


The Art of Dying "well. Xl^^ 

Books of. Life and Death Hiall be publickly opened. 
This Circaraftance of the General Judgment is men- 
tioned by St. John J Rev. xx. 11,12. And J faw a great 
white Throne^ and him that fat on it, from tvhofe Face 
the Earth and the Heaven fied away^ and there was found 
no Place for them. And I faw the Dead^ fmalL and 
greats fiand before Godj and the Books were opened j 
and another Book was opened^ which is the Book of Life ; 
and the Dead were judged out of thofe Things which were 
written h the Books^ according to their Works. St. Paul 
in his firft Epifile to the Corinthians^ confirms this Doc- 
trine, in the following Text : Judge nothing before the 
JimCf until the Lord come^ who both will bring to Light the 
hidden Things of Darknefs^ and will make manifefi th^ 
Counfels of the Heart : Chap. iv. 5. It is highly credible 
that God will (pread fo bright and fo convincing a Light 
over the Minds of Men, at the Day of Judgment, that \ 
they ihall not only fee fully into their own A(flions, 

butalfo into the A^lions of other Men 1 and that all the \\ 


Thoughts, and Words, and A£lions of all Men lliall be 
open to the view of All. The little artful Difguifes of 
Hypocrify fhall be then taken of, and the weak Pre- 
tences of the Lyar, the Traitor, and the Falfe Swearer 
be wholly baffled and confounded. This vifible Publi- 
cation of the general Wickednefs of Mankind, will 
pjrpve a kind of Foretafi: of the approaching Sentence • 
for then will come to pafs what is mentioned by St. 
Johny And the Kings of the Earthy and the Great Men^ 
mdihcRichMen, and the chief Captains^ and the Mighty 
Men J and every Bondman y and every Freeman fhall 
hide ^emfelves in the Bern, ^nd in the Rocks of the 
■ Mountains J 

i^G The Art of ^ying well. 

Mountains and jhall fay to the Mountains and Rochy fall 
on usj and hide us from the Face of him that fitteth ori 
ihe Throne^ and from the Wratk of the Lamb : For the 
Great Day of his Wrath is come ^ and who flmll he able to 
fiand f Rev. vi. 15, 16, 17. This is no lefs than what 
our Saviour himfelf foretold when he was going to his 
Crucifixion : Daughters of Jerufalem, weep not for mcj 
hut weep for your felvesy and for your Children : Fori 
behold J the Days are comings in which they fljall fay^ Blef- 
fed are the barren-, and the Wombs that never bare-, and 
the Taps which never gave Suck. Then ftjall they begin 
to fay to the Mountains^ fall on us and to the Hills^ 
cover us : Luke xxiiii 28, 29, 30. And then the final 
Sentence of good and bad Men is pronounced, which 
concludes the Amazing Scene. 

Confider then^ whofoever thou art, O Man! that 
thou thyfelf art one of the Number of thofe Perfons,who 
ihali be called to Judgment : See thy Judge fitting upon 
his Awful Tribunal *, Behold thy Vices or thy Virtues 
all difplayed before thee Contemplate the Terrors and 
Confufion of the Wicked, and the Triumphs of the 
Righteous *, Form to thyfelf a lively Image of this great 
Appearance, and then rejoyce^ in the wa^s of thy Heart, 
and in ihe fight of thine Eyesy i£ thy Confcience will 
give the Leave. Let not the feeming Diftance of that 
dreadful Day prevent thy beft Preparation for it ^ for 
at what Diftance foever the General Judgment may bej 
yet it is certain that the Particular Judgment ^ at th6 
time of thy Death, is not far from thee *, And it is no 
lefs certain, that the fame Sentence, which thy Con- 
fcience ftall gafs upon thee at the Ii^ant of thy De- 


The ^rt of Dying well. 1^7 

J)arture hence, (hall be ratify'd, and confirm'd ia the 
Day of Judgment. It is therefore the higheft Inftanci 
of Divine Wifdom, to look to the laft IfTue and Confe- 
qucnce of things ^ and That, however, diftant the' Day 
of Judgment may be, to refle£l with Thyfelf, that Death 
is daily making its Approaches towards Thee, This 
Confideration will inftruft thee in what Manner thou 
mayeft reconcile thyfelf to thy Judgt^ and receive a 
blefled Sentence in the final Account of all things* 



iToe Third Rule Prefdratory to a hapfy Veathy ufon thd 
Afjroach ef it^ is ^ To confider the ^Duration of 
Hell Torments. 

HAVING now finifhed the Cdnfideration of Deathj 
and a Future Judgment^ I (hall proceed, in Order* 
to confider the two great Confequences of them *, The 
Torments of Heli^ and the Joys of Heaven \ for one of 
thefe two States Will be the eternal Portion of every 
Man living. But the Truth of it is*, that thefe two 
States are lb different^ and indeed contrary to one an- 
other j that the one places us for ever in endlefs Mifery» 
and Pain ^ the other in the full and unchangeable Fru* 
ition of Happinefs and Glory. 

In treating on the deplorable State and Condition of 
the Damned in Hell^ I fhall only Firfi^ briehy mention 
fomething concerning this Punifiient as to the Vlace of 
Secondly^ As to the Continuance ^nd Duration:, arid 
Thirdly^ As to the Meafures^ and Degrees of it* Now 
the Place/ Where the Damned (hall fufFer thdr Punifli- 

T nientj 

1^8 The Art of 7)ying well. 

liient, it is very probable, will be in a deep bottomlefs 
Pit, in the Centre of the Earth, at the remoteft di- 
ftance from God, fecluded for ever from the Chearful- 
nefs of Llghtj and the Refrefhments of Air. The re- 
mote Diftance of all heavenly Glory from the Punifli- 
ments of the Damned, is fully evidenced in that Sen- 
tence pafled upon the Devil. How art thou fallen from 
Heaven^ O Lucifer, Son of the Morning *, for thou hafi 
faid in thine Hearty I will afcend above thf Height of the 
Clouds^ I will be like the mofl: High\ yet /halt' thou be 
brought down to Hell^ to the fide of the Pit: Ifa. xiv. 12, 
13, 14, 15 . This is the Place of Punilhment alfo for all" 
wicked and ungodly Men. 

Now, this Cbnfideration of the Tlace of Suffering, 
does alfb naturally fuggeft to us the Confideration of 
three other Ingredients of endlefs Mifery and thofe are, 
Firfij The Darknefs of this Place, Secondly y The Straitnefs 
of it, And, Thirdly^ The Poverty^ and great Want of all 
Comforts, and Refrefhments in it. For fince the Situ- 
ation of Hell lies in the Centre of the Earth, impene- 
trable either by the Sun, the xMoon, or the Stars, it is 
Impoflible it can be any ways enlightned, but by its 
own fulphureous Flames *, which will rather encreafe, 
than abate the iVliferies of the Damned. For by this 
gloomy and obfcure Light, they will have the faid Pri. 
viledge of feeing their Relations^ or Friends^ or Acquaint 
tanccj who it may be, have been the Authors of their 
Ruin, and of beholding their own Nakednefs, their own 
Chains, and their own, and others Torments ^ the very 
fight of which is of itfelf fufficient doubly to enkindle the 
Fires of Hell. They will have no Profpe<fl of any thing 
which can give them the laft Delight or Comfort. O 


The Art of Dying well. 159 

Lightfome Darknefs! O Obfcure Light! a Light that 
hides from their Eyes the Sight of any thing which can 
recreate the Senfes, or rejoice the Heart ^ a Darknefs 
which prefents them with the horrid View of every 
thing that is ghaftly and affrighting. 

The Straitnefs and clofe Confinement of Hell is, ia ' 
the fecond Place, another Ingredient of endlefs Mifery, 
For if the whole Body of the Earth when compared 
with the Dimenfions of the Heavens, is little more than 
an indivisible Point ^ and if the whole Space of Hell is 
fo far from containing the whole Body of the Earth, 
or indeed the half of it, that it is fixed only in the 
Center, or middle Part of it ^ and, Laftly,^ if the 
Number of the Damned, as is generally believed, ex- 
ceeds the Number of the BlefTed *, the Confequence is 
plain and undeniable, that Hell is a Place of great Con- 
finement. Let the Rich and Mighty Men, the Kings and 
Princes of the Earth, who are now bufy in extending 
their Conquefls, and who enlarge their Wifhes with the 
World, confider what is the End of Nebuchadonozorj 
Darius', and Alexat;der^ and other unjufl Princes. 
How arc they enclofed in the narrow Compafs of Hell 
and the Grave ? Vanity of Vanities ! Thus for Men 
to ftretch their Defires, and to widen in their Acquifi- , 
tions, by adding^ in the Langyage of the Prophetj \ 
Houfe to Houfcy and Field to Fields and, at the fame | 
time to be Unmindful, that all atlaft will end in Con^, 
finement, without ai^y Profpeft of Enlargement, to 
endlefs Ages. 

But what need I to mentioii now a Third Ingredient I 
of infinite Mifery ? viz., the Poverty, and ^reat Want 
of all Comforts and Refrefhments in this Place of Pu- 
T 2i nifliment. 

140 The Art of ^ytng weU^ 

nifhrnent. Naked, and ftript of all things which might 
eafe and alleviate our Pains, we ftiall abound in nothing 
but Tormet>ts and Deftradlion. It is true, the Re- 
ort/ niembrance-cf paft Pleafures will ftill continue with us, 
and the bitter Reflexion of thofe Delights, with which 
we abounded here, whether in Eatif^g and Drmkwg^ or 
in Drejfmgy or in Spqrts and Recreations ^ or in Garden^ 
ing and Fine FurniturCy or in Balls and Fla^s-, will only 
ferve to increafe our Pain. The Mifery of our prefcnt 
Condition will be Heigh termed and Improved, by confi- 
dering what a Figure we made in this World ^ and we 
lhall fay with thofe wicked Men in the Book of Wifdom V 
What hath Pride profited m ? Or what good have Riches^ 
vpith pur Vaunting brought ui ? Behold^ ail thefe things are 
paffed away like a Shadow. : 
I proceed now to confider, ^dly^ The Duration of, 
feture Puniftiments. And here, if the Queftion were, 
put to me, How long will the Tormef\^s of Hell continue ? 
I wifh I could anfwer, that they will not continue a- 
bove J2xy or fevtnty Years, or the Space of human Life 
in this World. But, ahfs ! there js no Comparifon, in . 
point of Duration, between this and the next Life \ for 
Time will th«n be fucceeded only by Eternity. So that ; 
the Sufferings of wicked Men, in a future State, will» 
continue as long as God fhall continue to be Eternal 
who as he had no B€ginning, fo will he alfo continue to 
be without End. The Sufferings of the Damned fhaU 
(^ntinus as long, as the Happinefs of the Bleffed : In 
fhort, the Wicked fhall continue in a State of Eternal- 
Death, fo long as God himfelf lhall live \ and unlels-he- 
ceafjs to be God, which is n-^orally impoflible, the 
Wicked can never ceafe from PuaiOiment : " O mifcrable 

The Art of Trying well. i^i 

« life, wherein we are always dying ! O unhappy 
« Death, wherein we always live ! If I call thee Life, 
^< how is it that thou killed always ? If I give thee ths 
^ Name of Death, how is it that thou continueft for 
ever ? I will therefore neither call thee by the name 
of Life, nor Death \ becaufe Life has fometimes 
Reft, and Death has alfo an End ^ But thou hafl: Nei- 
ther. How therefore (hall I perfeftly defcribe thee, 
unlefsl fay of thee, Tho'that will fall Ihort of the 
Torments which attend thee, that thou art the Com- 
plication of all the Pains and ^iferies both of Life 
^ and Death ? 

There remains now to be confidered the inexpreffible 
Grcatnefs of this Punifhment, as to the Meafures and 
jyegrees of it : For the Punifhment of Hell is not any 
One fingle Puntihment, but, if I may fo exprefs it, s 
whole Body of Torments, attacking at once all the 
Powers and Faculties both of Soul and Body, in aii 
their Outward and Inward Senfations. It is indeed as 
impoffible for any Man, in a State of Mortality, to 
have any thorow Knowledge or Experience of ali thofe 
Heavenly Delights which make up the Happinefs of the 
BlelTed, as it is of all thofe Ingredients which conftitute 
the Mifery of a damned Perfon. And whereas our earthly 
Sufferings generally affe^l us only in one part of the Bo- 
dy at a time *, it may be in the Eye, or the Hand, or 
the Foot All the Torments of Hell are felt at once 
in every Part of the Body, in the higheft Degree ; fo 
that the inextinguifhable Fire fhall encircle the whole 
Bod/ with its Flames, and yet never confumeit. De* 
party ye Curfed^ into everlafiing Flre^ fays the Judge ; 
Mat* XXV. 41. Where, as the Prophet Jfaiah fays, Their 


14^ The Art of Trying isoell. 

Warm Jhall not dle^ neither fljall their Fire be quench'd \ 
Chap. Ixvi. 24. The fame Expreflion is thrice repeated, 
by our Saviour^ in one Chapter of St. Afark's Gofpel,. 
with an Intention doubtlefe to warn Men of the Eter- 
nity of Hell-Torments, and Imprint, with more Effica- 
cy, fuch an awakening Confideration upon their Minds. 
To fee a Criminal burnt to Death upon a State- Account, 
tho* the Torment is not lafting, is a (hocking Sight *, and 
'tis Punifhment enough even to behold it. If the fame 
Perfon ftiould continue in the fame Degree of ^Suffering 
for a whole Q^iy, a Man muft be loft to all' Senfeof 
Pity and Compaffion, who could look upon fo fad a 
Spe£lacle. Let every Man therefore thus argue the 
Cafe with himfelf: " If I cannot behold, without a 
deep Concern, the burning of a living Man, whofe 
Pains affed me no otherwife than by the Sight of 
them i how can I endure thofe Flames in my own Per- 
fon, only for one Hour, or one Day, or one Month, 
or one Year ? Or fuppofe that I was capable of bear- 
" ing my Punifhment fo long, yet how can I be able 
" to dwell with everlafting Burnings ? Why do I then 
" expofe myfelf to fo much Danger? If I do not be- 
*^ lieve the Eternity of Hell- Torments, where is my 
Faith ? If I do, where is my Reafon, my Judgment, 
my Prudence, that I do not look before me, before 
the irreverfible Sentence is gone forth ? It is better 
" for me to think of thefe Puniftiments, than to fufFer 
them and if I think of them as I fhoulddo, this will 
be the beft means to prevent my fufFering of them : 
For if I live under a conftant Thought of tlie Gr^at- 
nefs and Duration of eternal Punifhment, this will 
" enliven anda6luate my Endeavours to avoid it ^ and 

" this 

The Art of Dying well. 14.5 

" this will convince me farther, that the only means 
to avoid it, is to adorn and enrich my Soul with 

«« fuch holy Difpofitions, as fiiall qualify me for the 
Enjoyment of Heavenly Glory *, Tiiat fo when Death 
ftiall make a Separation of my Soul and Body, I may 
be found prepared, and hear that BlefTed Sentence 

4' which fhall be pronounced upon all good Men, En- 
ter thou into the Joy of thy Lord. 


The Fourth Rule Preparatory to a happy Deathy upon the 
Approach of it, is ^ To confider the Glorious and 
Happy State of the BlefTed in Heaven, 

THE State and Happlnefs of the Bleffed comes 
now to be-confidered ^ and in difcourfing on fo 
Noble and Sublime a Subje6l, I lhall obferve the fame 
Method as I did in the preceeding Chapter ^ and there- 
fore fhall take notice, Firfl:^ Of the Place. Secondly^ Of 
the Continuance. And, Thirdly^ Of the Meafures and 
Degrees of all Heavenly Felicity. Now the Place of 
this Happinefs is Paradife, or the Highefl Heavens 
Eternity is the Time of its Duration, and the Meafures 
and Degrees of it, if the Exprefiion may be allowed, 
are infinite and unmeafurable. 

I fhall begin with the Flrfi Confideration, and that is 
the Place *, which is Paradife^ or the Highefl Heavens, 
far above all the Mountains of the Earth, above all the 
Elements, and above all the Stars. It is for this Reafon 
called in Scripture, The Houfe of God, the City of the 
Great Kingy the City of the Livi?2g God, the Heavenly 


1 4.4. The Art of Djiffg vdcU, 

Jerufdem. From this Sublime Situation of the Heavcn- 
Paradife^ it is reafonable to conclude, That the 
Privileges of this City do far tranfcend thofe of the 
moft Opulent and Magnificent Cities in the World. For, 
in the Jfl Place, by how much the Higher the Situation 
of any Place is, it is reafonable to believe it is fo much 
the Larger, and more Capacious*, becaufe as the Figure 
of the Earthly and Heavenly Globe is Round or Orbi- 
cular, fo that the Centre of the Univerfe is fixed in the 
Body of the Earth *, it follows by confequence^- that the 
Higheft Heavens contain in Compafe almoft an infimts 

The Place of Refidence therefore of Bleffed Spirits, 
and of glorified Souls and Bodies, as it is in its Situation 
the moft High, fo is it in its Capacity the moft En- 
larged *, as the Place of Hell-Torments, on the other 
hand, is the moft Confined, becaufe it lays low and 
deep in the Centre of the EartL I niuft add, zdlyj 
That the higher the Situation of any Place is, the more 
Pure is it alfo, and the more Free from Vapours and 
Exhalations* This Notion is entirely agreeable to the 
Natural Subordination of the Elements. Thus for In* 
ftance? xk^Wateri% of a more pure Quality than the 
]£.arthy the Air than the Water^ the Fire than the Air^ 
the Heavens than the Fire^ and the Empyreal Heavens 
l;han the Starry Firmament. Laftly^ The Higher any Si- 
tuation is, it is alfo, in a fair way of ReafonSng, much 
more Safe and Free from Danger ; for Heaven fufFers 
no Violence but from the Prayers of the Righteous. 

tfly Then the Seat of the Bleffed is very Large and 
Capacious ; infomuch that the Glorifyed Bodies of juft 
hkii niade> perfect, can, in an Inftani, move with in- 


The Art of Dying -sjcU. 14.5 

credible Swiftnefs from Place to Place, without tyring. 
Jt is inipoflible to defcribe the Greatnefs of this Plea- 
fure,' arifing from fuch an Agility of Body when in 
one moment it Ihall Traverfe the whole Heavens, and 
behold the blefTed Society of Patriarchs, Prophets, and 
Apoftles, of Saints, Angels, and God *, while the Bo- 
dies of the Damned in Hell, at the fame time, conti. 
nue, and will for ever continue, in everlafting Con. 
finement. But this Happinefs will yet receive a 
farther Increafe, inafmuch as the BleflTed above (hall 
dwell for ever in a Pure and a ferene Heaven, not 
clouded or overcaft with any Mift, or Darknefs, or any 
Vapours, or Exhalations whatfoever ^ while the Inha* 
tkants of Hell, miferable beyond the Hopes of Mercy, 
krc forced to lie down in thick Darknefs and eternal 
Night. What fhall 1 fay more of the Heavenly Jerufoj- 
iemy fecured from Injury and Violence by the height of 
its own Situation, or rather by the Innocence of its 
Inhabitants, and the Arm of God ? Praife thy Gad-, O 
Jerufalem ! Praife thy Gody OSion ! fays David : for 
he hath made fafl the Bars of thy Gates : Pfal. cxlvii. i2t 
15. By which Exprefiion is not mearit, that the Gates 
of Heaven are continually fhut for fear of Danger : For 
we read in the Revelations j That the Gates of it fhallnot 
ie flmt at all by Day *, for there fjjali be no Night there* 
Chap. xxi. 25. ,So that the Senfe of thofe words of the 
Pfalmiflt is, that God hath fecured it from Danger by 
^ its own Exaltation : For altho' the Devil contended 
.with St. Adfkhael the Archangel, yet this was not done 
hy way of Invafion, or an Afcent from Earth to Heaven, 
•he himfelf being an Inhabitant of it *, but not being 

V confirmed 

1 46 The Art of Dyirtg well. ' 

confirmed in Grace, but puffed up with Pride, and aF 
fei^ing to be equal with God himfelf, he fell, like 
Lightning from Heaven, into the Regions of Darknefs 
and Defpair. And becaufe the Kingdom of Heaven h 
fettled upon the unalterable Foundations of Peace and 
Order J it was therefore impoffible that fo great an Ene- 
my to Peace fiiould maintain his Station there and 
from that time no Man is admitted as a Citizen of the 
Heavenly Jerufalem^ who is not in a confirmed ^tate of 
Grace^ and perpetual Peace. 

I go on now to confider the Continuance of this Blei- 
fednefs. Now the Time of the Duration of the Joys 
of Heaven, fince the Fall of Satan-, is Unmeafurable ; an 
Endlefs Duration, without any fucceffive P^eturas of 
Day and Night. This is what is attefted by the Angel 
with an Oath : And he [ware by him that liveth for 
tver and ever', who created Heaven-, and the Things that 
are therein and the Earthy and the Things that are there 
in and the Sea^ and the Things that are therein^ that 
there Jhould be Time no . longer : Rev. X. 6. And our 
Bieffcd Saviour, who was Truth it felf, gives this Ac- 
count of the Sentence which fhall pals upon all Men ia 
the Day of Judgment: The Wtcked fljall go arpi^ into 
everlajling Tunifljment-, and the Right eons into Life eter- 
nal : Mat* XXV. 46. The only Difference between good 
and bad Men, at the Day of Judgment, will be this \ 
That wicked Men will be affrighted at the Profpe^ of 
Immortality which is before them, as being indeed the 
faddeft Ingredient of their Mifery j but the good Man 
will lift up his Head with Triumph upon his Entrance 
into that St^te, where he ftall live la Happinefi for 


The Art of T)ying well. 14.7 

entf without any fear of Dying-, where he (hall ftand 
immoveable in his own Innocence for ever, without any 
fcar of Falling. O Eternity inconceivably Bleffed - 
How are our Thoughts loft in the Contemplation of 
thee, which art incomprehenfible? Thou filleft all the 
Capacities of an Heaven-born Soul with Sincere and Un- 
bounded Delights : Thou includeft, in thine own Na- 
ture, as much Happinefs as infinite Wifdom can con- 
trive, as much Happinefs as Man can receive, nay even 
as God^imfelf can give. 

I come now to confider, Thirdly^ The Meafures and 
i^^^rmof this Happinefs of the Blefled: And this, I 
think, I may be allowed to lay down by way oiMax- 
im^ That whatfoever i$ Lovely and Defirahle upon Earthy 
which is always allay d with fome mixture of Bitternefs - 
Thisy and infinitely more^ the Bleffed in Heaven JJjall enjoy 
Wthout the leafl Difturhancej or Intermijfwn. The moft 
valuable Difpenfations of Providence we enjoy in this 
World, are Honour^ Vower^ Riches^ 2ind Pleafure. Now 
the great Honour and Dignity^ to which a Man is ad- 
vanced in his Glorified Body, does equally furpafs our 
Thoughts, as it does our Admiration. Indeed it would 
appear almoft incredible, if He, who cannot lye^ had not 
^ffured us of the Qreatnefs of it : To him that over- 
comethy fays our Saviour, will I grant to fit with me on 
^y T hrone^ even as I alfo overcame^ and fit upon my 
(Fathers Throne: Rev.iii.2i. How infinitely below 
' tthis Eminency of Glory are all the Honours and high 
^Stations of the World ? To fit upon the Throne of 
God, and with God^ how is this the very Heighth and 
Pinn^icle of all Heavenly Honour ? With what Tri- 
U z umphS| 

148 The Art of Dying well. 

umphs, with what Applaufcs does the Heavenly Jerufa-- 
lem refound, upon the Exaltation of a frail Man, once 
a finful Man, to the Throne of God, who is Kmg of 
Kings^ and Lord of Lords^ the only Ruler of Princes ? 

But, Secondly^ The Tower alfo of the Bleffed, in a 
State of Glorification will be no ways inferiour to that 
Dignity and Honour^ to which they (hall then be ad* 
vanced. The Promife given by our Lord, in his Gof- 
pe!, to the faithful Servant ^ that he would male him 
Ruler over all his Goods^ is a full Confirmation of this 
Truth. The plain Senfe of which words is thiJ: That 
a fcithful Servant of Chrifi Jefus^ in a State of Blefled- 
nefs, fhall, in fome meafure, be made Partaker of 
that Powerj which God himfelf exercifes over all his 
Creatures. How, great the Power of God is, over 
all Created Beings^ is Vifible to us in many Inftances of 
it : So that, in Truth and Reality ^ the BlefTed in 
Heaven, fhall be Exalted to the Dignity of Kings ancj 
Trinces over the whole World, to all Ages. This is no 
more than what is fpecify^d in tht final Sentence of good 
Men : Come^ ye Blejfed of my Father y inherit the King- 
dom prepared for you^ from the foundation of the World y 
Matt. XXV. 34. 

But then, in the Third Phce, what fhall I fay of 
thofe Riches y and that Abundance ^ which the BlefTed 
fhall inherit in a flate of Glory? It is fufficient to fay 
of them, that they are Durable and Lafling PofTeffions, 
fuch Treafuresy as neither Aloth^ nor Rufi can corrupt^ nor 
Thieves break thro' and fieaL The Koy^\ Prophet afTures 
us, tfeat Riches and Plenteoufnefs fhould he in his Houfe j 
and St. Pauly in his Fir/t Epiftle to the Corinthians^ 
Chap. XY.28. That GodJhaU he All in All'-^ which words 


The Art of ^ying well. i ^9 

are thus expounded by TheophylaB : As in a State of 
Mortality, the Things Neceflary for the Support, the 
Convenience, and the Credit of human Life, are Meat, 
PrinJc, Apparel, Houfes, Riches, Honour, and Piea- 
Cire, and the like-, in a State of Immortality, the 
Cafe will be far otherwife : For the Wi{\on of God, and 
the Fruition of his Prefence, is the Fullnefs of all 
Things : The BlelTed, therefore, in Heaven, (hall en- 
joy every thing that is Valuable, that is Incorruptible, 
or that indeed is Worth enjoying, in the moft Plentiful 
manner/ St. Jerom improves this Opinion, and afTures 
us ; That God will not only be the Fullnefs of all Tem- 
poral, but alfb of all Spiritual Bleffings to Men in a 
State of Happinefs : For as in this Life God does not 
communicate every Grace to every Man, butbeftows a 
larger Share of it on fome than he does on others ^ as 
of WiHom to Solomon -iOoodnQ^s to Davidy and Patience 
to Job : In the Life to come, every blefled Saint fhall 
receive, in the fulleft Meafure, every Heavenly Grace. 
What a Pleafure and Satisfaction would it be to a Co- 
vetous Man, in this World, could he obtain the Pot- 
feffion of all the Riches in the Univerfe ? How would 
it pleafe the Luxurious Man, could he indulge himfelf 
in all the Voluptuoufnefs and Excefs his Soul longeth 
after ? What would the Ambitious Man give, could he 
afcend to that Eminency of Dignity and Honour, which 
his own afpiring Thoughts lead him up to ? And yet to 
aim at Riches, or Pleafures, or Preferments, is only to 
fix our Thoughts upon fuch things as are fleeting and 
inconftant ^ and, what are the bitter Confequences of 
all earthly Satisfa£lions, they are generally followed^ 
either with Loathfomnefs, and Remorfe of Confcience, 


150 The j^rt ef T)ying well. 

or with Shame, Infamy, and Want. The Inference 
therefore is jiift and reafonable, that we unite all our 
Thoughts and Affedlions in God, who alone is able to 
fatisfy all the Defires and Capacities of an imaiortal 
Soul, and that too as long as the Soul fhalllaft. 

But, Fourthly, The Joy and Pleafure, • which is alfo 
Part of the Happinefs of the BlefTed, is no way infe- 
riour to the Riches arid Abundance they enjoy in Hea^- 
ven. Both St. Paul, and the Prophet Ifaiahy arc loft 
in the Contemplation of Heavenly Glory, and' give the 
.beft Defcription of it, by telling us, that 'tis impoffibk 
to be Defcribed : Eye hath not feen^ noriEar heardj nti* 
ther hath it entered tnto the Heart of Man to conceive the 
Things^ rphich God hath prepared for them that love him; 
2 Gor ii. 9. Ifa. Ixiv. 4. The Joys, the Pleafures, the 
'Delights, the Sweetnefs arifing from the Situation, the 
Company, the Harmony of the BlefTed, liJce other 
tranfitory Enjoyments of this World, never fatiate and 
cloy the Mind, but are always Frefh and Entertaining, 
All Pleafore, as Philofophy exprefTcs it, lays in afuitable 
Aigreement between the Faculty md thQ OhjeEtj and af- 
firms, that the dofer the Union is between them, the 
greater Pleafure is occafioned by that Union. Now in 
'the whole Order of Created Beings, there is no Faculty 
fo Large, fo Lively, fo Capacious of Pleafure, as the Ra- 
'tionalSouL In the whole Order of Heavenly Beings, 
there is no Object fo Lovely, fo Delightful, fo Agreeable 
to xh\s Faculty, asGod. O tajie and fee how gracious the 
Lord is^ fays the Royal Prophet^ Pfd. xxxiv. 8. And 
Xhe Wifeman, fpeaking of the Beauty of the Sun and 
Stars, argues the Superiority, in that refpe^l, of their 


The Art of ^ying well. 151 

Great Creator over them. If Men are delighted with the 
I BeMty of the Lights of Heaven^ let them know how nmch 
better the Lord of them is \ for the firji Author of Beauty 
hath created them. If thy were ajloniJJjed at their Power 
and Virtue^ let them underftand by them^ how much Adigh- 
tier he is that made them : For by the<jreatnefs and Beau" 
ty of the Creaturesy proportionably the Maker of them is 
feen : Wifdom xiii. 3, 4, 5. 

But, Laflily^ There is no Union fo Clofe as that of the 
Soul witli God *, for, according to St. ?anV% Rule, He 
that is joined unuithe Lord is one Spirit i Cor. vi. 17 . 
All Pleafure which arifes from Senfation^ is generally fu- 
perficial, and does but barely reach the Soul \ with what 
Meafees'of fpiritual Complacency then lhall the Immor- 
tal Spirit be filled, when it is united to him, who is 
the Fullnefs of all Delight ? I muft confcfs, that I arft 
entirely at a Lofs to Comprehend, much lefs to Exprefe 
the inconceivable Pleafure which fprings from this facred 
Vnion^ or rather Communion with God. 

I (hall only add, That all Human Heafure, which 
sifFe^ls Men by outward Senfations^ and arifes from a 
Union of the Soul with created Objects, is, at the beft, 
but of a (hort Continuance *, whereas thofe Delights, 
which fpring from an entire Union of the human Soul 
with God, are Inftnite and fliall continue in being, as 
long as God, and Heaven fhall laft. 

G H A P. 

1 5^ The Art of "Dying well. 


The Fifth Rule Prefaratory to a Haffy Death, upon th^ 
Jpfroach of it, is \ To fettle and difpole of our 
Worldly Affairs, by making a li^j//. 

HAVING enlarged on the Confideritiia of the 
four lafi Things, Deaths Judgment, Heaven, and 
Hell, I go on to confider, What every Man ought to do, 
in the next PUce, who would efFeftually Prepare for 
his Departure out of this World. Now as frequent 
Law Suits commence, and different Demands are made, 
and many Dilputes arife among Families and Relations^ 
occafioned by the Negligence of Men, in not taking a 
due Care to prevent thefe Mifchiefs, by fettling their 
Temporal Concerns^ it is therefore a Duty incumbent 
on every Man, as he is anfwerable for the ill Effects 
and Confequences of his own Omiffion, to difpofe of 
what God has given him, according to fuch Rules of 
Trudence, Jufttce, and Charity, as he fhall judge moft 
NecefTary. This is the Command of God, by the Pro- 
phet Ifaiah, to King Hesiekiahy Thns faith the Lord, fet 
thine Houfe in order', for thou /halt furely die'. Chap, 

Now that Men may difcharge this Obligation with 
Prudence to themfelves, and a juft Regard to others, it 
will be highly expedient, either to make their Will 
when they are in a State of Health, that fo when 


The Art of "Dying well. 1 5 ^ 

beith approaches them^ the Confideration of worldly 
Affairs may not break in upon their more ferious Con- 
templations*, or otherwife in the Beginning of Sicknefs 
while their Thoughts are Glear^ not Difcompofed with 
Pain, or Weaknefs, or the fad Apprehenfiohs of Futu- 
rity J by which means they are rendered either wholly 
Incapable of difpofing their worldly Affairs, or at leaft 
in fo Difcreet and Beneficial a manner, as they ought 
to do. 

As the^ Relations between Man and Man in this Worlds 
and the Obligations we have to them, and the Circunr 
ftances of them are widely Different from each other, it 
willbe impofiible to prefcribe fuch a of Particular 
Direftions, as to the making our Will^ as fhall reach 
all Cafes yet I fhall endeavour to offer fome General 
Rules and Confiderations, which, as I conceive, may 
be of fome Advantage in this matten 

Now the firfl Provifion to be made, in making a 
Will-, is to do Juftice to others, in an Equitable Satif- 
fa£lion of thofe Debts which we have contra<fled with 
them : For it is morally impoffible that any Man can 
leave the World with a Quiet Confcience^ who laysun_ 
der any Obligations of this Kind to his Neighbour *, \ 
mean, if he be able to Difcharge them ; for otherwife, 
it is much to be hoped, that a WiUing Mind, and a Sin- 
cere Repentance, will be looked upon, by God, as a 
Full Compenfation of all of Injury and Injuftice* 
The fecondQQTiQt2i\ Rule a Man ought to Obferve in this 
Refpe(^, is *, to Bequeath what he has to Thofe, whom 
He in Juftice and Honefty fhall Judge to have the Beft 
iftight to it : a Principal Regard being always had to 
^ " X Them 

1 54 The Art oj Dying well. 

Them who are moft Nearly Related to him. The Ob- 
ligations of Nature, the Tyes of Blood, and the great 
Law of Doing as we would he done by, whatever Liber* 
ty may be allowed by Human Laws to the contrary* 
plead very ftrongly for fuch an Equitable Difiribution* _ 
In the Difpofalof fuch Matters as are properly his own, 
whether by Acquifition-^ Grants or otherwife ^ let him^ 
in the \fi Place, confider in what Inftances he may 
moilly promote the Glory of God ^ becaufe the Glory 
of God ought to be the Chief end of all our ^^^lions. 
This is agreeable to St. FauVs Charge, Whatfoever ye do^ 
do all to the Glory of God. The way, whereby all Nor 
rural Beings do promote the Glory of God, is by 
the Curious Finenefs of their Workmanfhip, and by 
Ailing according to thofe ftated Laws which Providence 
has prefcribed them. The Heavens declare the Glory of 
God, and the Firmament fieweth his Handy-work", Pial. 
xix. I. The ways whereby all Moral Agents do princi- 
pally promote this great end, are, i^. By tranfcribing 
the Perfeftions of God into themfelves. And, 2dly^ 
By Giving a Share of what he has beftowed on them, 
in fome Inftances or another, for his Worfhip and Ser-. 

But then, idly. Some Regard, in fettling our world- 
ly Affairs, ought to be had to the Wants and Necejfuies 
of others. If a Man's Circumftances are very Confide* 
rable, after a reafonable Provifion made for his Family, 
he ought to give the Overplus, in his Life-time, to his 
poor Neighbours ; or if he has been wanting in that 
Refpe^V, he lays under a double Obligation to do this 
at the Hme of his Death. This, as I obferved in ano^ 


The Art of Dying well. 155 

I tiier Chapter, is the concurrent Opinion of the nioft 
Celebrated Divines, If a Man be at a lofs in what In- 
llrances he may beft Difpofe of his EfFe£h to the Glory 
God, and the Good o{ others, let him have recourfe 
to the Judgment and Advice of fomc Honefl Man in this 
Affair If having always a due regard to the Tme^ Tlace^ 
Manner^ and other Circumflances of A£lion *, and dilpo- 
fing his Charity, according to the different Wants and 
Exigencies of Men. Sometimes perhaps his Charity will 
be moft^advantageoHfly T)eftowed in building a Churchy 
or in founding a College ^ at another Timc^ or in another 
Tlace, it maybe, in ^r^^m^m Hofpitaly or in building 
zxiAtms'Houfe^ ov2iSchooly for the Cure, or Mainte- 
nance, or Education of the Miferable, and DiftrefTed, 
and Ignorant Part of Mankind. In Ihorf, a Gear Head, 
and aCharitabte Hearty as St. Ambrofe affirms^ or as 
St. Gregory otherwife, tho' much to the (ame purpofet 
exprefles it, Charity joined with Prudence, and Prudence 
ivith Charity, will furnifh a Man with the Beft Direc: 
tions in the Difpofal of his Temporal Concerns. 

There is one Confideration, of fome Moment, yet 
remaining which, however, may ferve as an Excellent 
Rule in the Diftributions of Charity, and that is i 
T'hat whether a Man beftows his Bounty to others^ 
when he is in a State of Health, or leaves it by Legacy 
at his Death, he take great Care, that he be in a 
State of Grace and Favour with God ; becaufe his own 
Worthinels will recommend his Charity, and make it 
more Acceptable to Him. The Temporal Offerings of 
Wicked Men, r^olefs than their Spiritual Sacrifices, are 
an Abomination to the Lord Befides, that the Ends 
and Defigns of their Charity, are widely different from 

X 2 the 

156 The Art of Dying well. 

the Intentions of Good Men in a6ling after the fame 
manner. The End and Defign of the One is generally to 
court the Favour and Applaufe of Men, of the Other to 
approve themfelves to God Only. ThcCommendablePur- 
pofe of the One is to Do Good to others, merely for 
the fake of fo Doing the felftfh Intention of the Other, 
is to have a Regard to themfelves, in the Commenda- 
tions of others. In fhort ; there is, generally fpeaking, 
as much Difference in the Diftributions of Good and 
Bad Men, as there is between Neceflity and Choice. 


11o^.^i:^th^^RuU Frefaratory to a happy Death j upon the 
Approach of it^ is , To Praftice the Duty of Con- 
• feilion. 

r A F T E R the Confideration of the F.ourUji Things^ 
jr\^ ar4 the Necejfity of Settling our worldly Affairs 
hy IVill'^ the Next Duty in Courfe, is Confejfion'^ or a 
Particular and piftinft Acknowledgment of our Sins 
to God." Now tho* God has required fuch a Particu- 
lar Confeilion to him, it is not to be fuppofed, that He, 
who is Omnifcience it felf, and at one Intuitive View, 
fees into all the Ad^ions of Men, and the Circumftan- 
cesvof .them, requires This by way of Information j but 
only as an Evidence of our Sorrow and Humiliation for 
them. And becaufe the Infirmities of Age, or the Vio- 
lence of a Diftemper, or the Hurry a Man' is in, in 
Settling his Temporal Affairs, or an Unwillingriefs to 
ie^Ve the World, and the fad Apprehenfions of Futu- 

The Art if 7)jing wH. 157 

rity ; I Jay Becaufe One, or More, or it may be All 
thefe Caufes are apt to Incumber and Diftra(5l the 
Thoughts 9 it is therefore necefiary, that a Man be Fre- 
quent in the Pra^lice of this Duty in the time of 
Health. For tho* it is not Abfolutely Impoffible that a 
Man be rightly Difpofed and Qualified for fuch a Per- 
formance, in the time of Age^ or Sicknefs and tho' it 
may bealfo Neceflary to confefs how unrighteoufly he 
has lived in the World, jufl: when he is going out of it; 
yet Rejfon and Obfervation will both convince him, 
that this may be done with more Safety, and more 
Prudence, when he has a free Exercife of his Thoughts, 
and the right Ufe of his Reafon. 

Now this Duty of ConfeffioK will appear highly Rea- 
fonable on thefe two Accounts : In the Firjl Place, 
That without Confeffion there can be no Repentance. 
Andj Secondly^ That without Confeffion there can be 

And, F/r#, There can be no True Repentance with- 
out Confeffion : For how can any Man be faid to be (br- 
ry for any thing, when he will not fo much as Own it? 
And tho* a bare Acknowledgment of Sin is not of it 
felf fufficient to reconcile a Man to God ^ yet I can- 
not fee how he can be fincefely Penitent without it ; 
Confeffion being the Ground and Foundation, or rather 
a neceflary Part of true Repentance. Not to acknow- 
ledge a Sin, is equally Criminal with its Conceal, 
ment *, in this Cafe our Silence is a Private Juftification 
of it and Proceeds either from a wicked Obflinacy, 
or wilful Ignorance whereas a fmcere Repentance ex- 
prefles it felf in an Open and Ingenuous Abhorrence of 


158 The Art of ^jing weU. 

Sin, and a Real Convi^lion Both of the Guilt and Pu- 
niftinent of it. 

But, Secondly^ Without Confeffion, there can be no 
Forglvenefs. This was the Condition of Pardon under 
the OU Law: And it fljallbe^ when he fijail he guilty in 
ene of thefe things, that he flmll confefs that he hath firmed 
tn thatThing'^ Lev. v. 5. This is farther confirmed in 
the New Tefiament \ If we Confefs our Sins, God is 
Faithful and Juft to forgive m our Sins, mid to cleanfe m 
from all Vnrighteoufnefs : I John i. 9. In all Covenants 
it is exprefly ftipulated, that the Conditions be fulfilled, 
before the Promifes, annexed to the Obfervance of thofe 
Covenants, be made Good. If God Promifes Forgive- 
nels upon the Condition of Confefiion, it is Reafona- 
ble to Infer, that without Confefiion there will be no 
Forgivenefs : For as God was pleafed, of his own Free 
Grace, to make fuch a Promife to Mankind, he has cer- 
tainly a Right to with-hold the Execution of that Pro- 
mife, unlefs the Conditions, upon which that Promife 
was made, be aftually fulfilled. 

Now that this Duty of Confeffion may prove Accepta- 
ble to God, , and EfFeftual' to the Pardon and F6rgive- 
nefsof Sin, I fhali confider, idly, In what manner it ovt^ht 
to be performed. 

And, in the iji Place, One good Qiialification of this 
Duty is Humility *, which, as it refpe^^s Cokfejflony con- 
fifts in a Deep Senfe of our own Unworthinefs in Provok- 
ing God, and in Taking the whole Guilt of aM oar Sins 
upon oar felves. It is the Ordinary Practice of Man- 
kind to fhifc off their Vices upon ochers. In the Firft 
Inftance of Difobedience in the World, the Man laid 
the Fault upon the Woman, and the V/oman upon the 


The An of ^ying well. 159 

DcvH. The Force and Prevalency of Nature Is fonie- 
times urged as an Extenuation of our Crimes Many 
times we attribute them to the Power of the Devii^ 
and fometimes, rather than bare the Blame of them 
our felves, by a Blafphemous Pretence to Holinefs, we 
fiiall make even God Himfelf the Author of them : 
Whereas it is Certain, in the ifi Place, That God has 
given to every Man a fufficient Meafure of Grace and 
Power to Rcfift the moft vicious Inclinations of Hw 
mm Nature, zdly^ That all the Power the Devil has 
over Ma^ikind, is only that of Temptation^ and not of 
Force and Compulfion to Sin. And, -s^dly^ That God 
is fo far from being the Author of Sin, as he is a Be- 
ing of all Poffible Purity and Perfeftion, that he has ex- 
preffed the Utmoft Averfion to it, and will Punifh it ia 
the moft Dreadful Manner. 

But, Secondly^ Another Qualification of Confeflion, is 
X Deep Sorrow and Concern for Sin. The Weight of Sin 
fat fo Heavy upon the Soul of the Crucified Jefm^ 
j^hat it made him Sigh^ and Sweaty and Bleed^ and Die. 
Behold-, and fie^ fays our Saviour, exprefling his own 
Agony, if there beany Sorrovo like unto my Sorrow-, where- 
with the Lord hath affliEled me in the Day of his Fierce 
Anger. Now if the Sins of other Men did fo grievoufly 
affli£l Him, who himfelf had no Sin how ought ever/ 
Man, with the moft fenfible Compundion of Heart, to 
bewail his own ? See the Behaviour of St. Auftiny in 
the Hiftory of his Life by Poffidius, on this Occafion : 
In his Uft Illnefs, fays the Hijlorian-, he ordered the 
Penitential Ffalms of David to be fairly Tranfcribed, 
^ and, when he lay upon his^ Death-Bed, to be placed in 


1 60 The Art of ^ying well. 

open View before him, on which his Eyes were cOn-' 
ftantly fixed, not without a great Profufion of 
Tears. And to Prevent any Interruptions which 
might happen, about ten Days before his Death, he 
gave it in Charge to his Servants, that no one fhould 
be permitted to come into his Chamber, but at thofe 
" Hours, when his Phyficians attended him,or anyPro- 
*^ per Refrefhments were brought to him *, for all the 
" Reft of his Time was imployed in Confeflion and 
Prayer." This was the Praftice of this Heavenly 
Wife Man, who lived to the 45d Year of his ifge ^ in 
which time he Conftantly preached the Word of God, 
jind employed himfelf Continually in writing for ;the 
Benefit of the Chrifi tan Churchy of which he was a great 
Ornament. He was of an Even and Affable Temper, 
Unwilling to be Provoked himfelf, or to Offend others \ 
and feverely Exemplary in all the Duties of ConfelTion, 
Repentance, and Devotion, to the time of his Death. 

But, Thirdly^ Another Qualification of Confeflion, 
is. That it be Vniverfal^ and Extend it felf to all Kinds 
of Sin whatlbever ^ whether of Ignorance^ Inftrmity-^ 
or Prefuwption : And that for this Reafon ; Becaufe all 
Sin is an Offence againft God. If a Man Doubts whe- 
ther he has committed fuch or fuch a FaH-^ or not, he 
is not obliged, in this Cafe, to confefs againft Convic- 
tion *, yet fhall he fiy that he has not finned ! No ; if 
a Man queftions the Fa£l, let him confefs Condition ally ^ 
Jf J have Cotnmitted This or That Faily Lord pardon 
thy Servant in this Thing. If he is Convinced of the 
FaBy but doubts whether it be a Sin^ or not, his Con- 
feflion, in this Cafe, muft be Conditional alfo. 

The Art of Dying nsuell 1 6 1 

But befides this Confejfim of Sin to God, there is ano- 
ther Kind of Confeffion alfo, which has been the Con^ 
ftantPradlice of the Chrlflian Church ia all Ages, and 
which is of fingular Benefit and Advantage j and that is 
to Lay open the whole State and Condition of the Soul 
«>■ the Prlelt. This Pradlice is of Great Service in nu- 
ny Refpefts*, in the ly? Place, As it highly promotes 
the Peace and Qiiiet of Men, in thus anburthening their 
Confciences. zdly^ In that the Priefi^ by this means, 
k better Informed of the Spiritual Neceffities of Men v 
and oAfequently that he is Qualified to adapt his Ad- 
vice to them with more Succefs. And, ^dly. That the 
Petfon fo Confeffing, will be better Qualified to Re-, 
cdve the Benefit of Ahfolution For God, who has the^ 
Firft and Only Right of Forgiving Sins, hath Deputed 
^\%Vo^Qtto\i\% Ambaffadors htXQ^ to Pronounce this 
jibfdution* St, Amhrofe^ in his CommeTit on the ^^th 
Pfahrty hySj That he that denies this Power in the Pyleji^, 
It no better than a Novatiari, St. Cyprian is entirely 
of the fame Opinion* This Power is derived down 
f^om the Apbftles,' to whom it was' firft Delegated, to 
their Succefforji The Original Commiffionr xs^ Whofe- 
fi/ever Sins ye Remit ^ they are Remitted mto themy a^d 
It^fefffevtr Sins ye Retain^ they are Retained \ John xk. 

Whofoever therefore affents to the Do<5lrine of 
ihe cy-iftian Church', or believes the Authority of the 
jinrient fathers J or t\itWord of God., as Revealed ia 
the Scriptures^ cannot deny this Power of the Priefl: ^ 
^nd if the Power of ^^y£^/«^/W be' Indifputiiblc, and it 
be farther Certain, that God has Entrufted him with 
the Difpenfation of fo great a Bleffing ; the Inference 
fron* the Whok is, That Men fliould ufe the Means 

y which 

1 6 2 The Art of Trying well. 

which God has Appointed, to Afccrtain that Blefiing to 

CHAP. Vlt 

The Seventh Rule Prepdratory to a hafpy Death, upon the 
Approach of it, is \ To Receive the Holy Com- 

IT was the Pra^lice of the Primitive Chrifijans al- 
ways to Adminifter the Sacrament to Sick, or Dy- 
ing Perfons. Paulinus, in the Life of St. Amhrofe, af- 
firms, that He received the Holy Communion when he 
was at the Point of Death, and immediately expired. 
Simeon Metaphrafles, in the Life of St. Chryfojhomj men- 
tions the fame thing. One Reafon, among others, which 
ind\iCQd thQ Primitive Chriflians to this Praftice, was^ 
That they Judged it Neceflary to Conclude the Chriftian 
Lifoy with the Higheft and moft Venerable Inftance of 
Chriflian Obedience, 

I have already Difcourfed on this Subje^l in General^ 
ifi the Former Part of this Book 5 I Hiall now confider 
it more Particularly, as it Relates to Sick Perfons, or as 
it is a Kind of Spiritual Refrejhment to them, in their 
Pafllige to Eternity. And, Firfi, I Ihall confider What 
is to be Done by the Sick Perfon, before he is admitted 
to the Holy Commmion. Secondly, In what Manner he 
ought to Behave himfelf at the Time of Communicat- 
ing. And, Thirdly, What it is Incumbent upon him, 
After he has jRefrefiied himfelf with this Heavenly 

As to the Firji of thefe Particulars ^ namely^ -What 
j$ to be Done by the Sick Perfon before he is admitted 


The Art of Dying well 1 6 3 

to tlie Holy Communioir^ I would Advife him to confider 
Deeply That Seraphical Exclamation of Aquinas : O 
Heavenly Banquet^ fays he, in which Our Saviour Him- 
felf is Prefenty by which the Memory of his Pajfton is Re- 
vived in HS^ Our Minds filled xvith Divine Graces and a 
Pledge of Future Glory is heflowed upon us. The Great 
Advantages of Receiving the Pieced Sacrament^ are fet 
forth in this PafEige, in fo Lively and AfFe<n:ing a Man- 
ner, that I think 1 cannot Furnifh a Dying Man with 
more ^feful Direftions, than by Beflowing fonie 
Thoughts upon it. Now the Firji Obfervatlon I would 
make from thefe words, is j That this Holy Sacrament 
is reprefented to us under the Figure of a Peaj^^ a Kind 
of fpiritual Entertainment, whereby the Departing Soal 
is Strengthened and Rcfrefhed in its way to Eternity, 
after the Fatigues of a Tedious PafTage through this 
World'. It is there called, ^dly^ A Holy Feafl ^ Becaufe 
it is not only Holy in its own Nature, the moft Holy 
God being always Spiritually Prefent in it \ but alio 
Becaufe it requires the Utmoft Degrees of Holinels, and 
Chriftian Perfe£lion, by way of Preparation for it. It 
is farther added, in thQ third Place, that Chrifi Himfclf 
is Received in this Feaft. For under the Outward Spe- 
cies of Bread and Wine^ the Great Founder of this 
Feaft, tho* not in a Corporal Manner, is Prefent^ and 
is received, to our fpiritual Advantage, by a Lively ancj 
Sincere Faith. 

But to confider the Advantages of Receiving IVorthi- 
ly more Particularly, I go on to make fome Refle(flions 
on the Remaining Part of the Words *, where it is faid, 
That by Receiving the Holy Communion, the Menmy 

164 The Art of DyiTtg 'well. 

of our Saviours Pajfion U Revived in Vs. For therefore 
is the Body and Blood of C/7r/>? Confecrated under the Ele* 
ments both of and Wim\ the Element of Bread^^ 

reprefenting his Body feparated from his Bloody and the 
Element of Wine^ reprefenting to us his ^/(^o^^ feparated 
f^rom his Body. It was the Defign of our Savimr^ in 
this Inconceivable Myflery^ to Continue a Perpetual 
Metiiory of his Deaths and by a Conftant Remembrance 
of it, to make Men fenfible of the Two great Evilsy^ 
both of Sin and PuniQiment, from which they/^.re de- 
livered, and the great Benefits which, by his Sufferings, 
they are entitled to. This therefore is the Command 
of our BlefTed Saviour himfelf, Do this in remembrance of 
me\ Lukexxii. 19. And St. Paul^ explaining thefe 
word^ of our Lord, affures the Corinthians^ That as of* 
ten as ye eat this Brend^ and drink this Cupy ye do Jhexo 
the Lord's Death till he come\ i Ep.ii. 26. The Senfe 
of which Scripture is. That as often as ye ihall ap^ 
proach this Holy Myjlcryy it will Remind you ^ that our 
Lord Jefpu Chrijl laid down his Life for you, and this 
Commemoration of his Death and Paflion lhall continue 
with you, till his Second Coming to Judge the World, 
or the Final Confummation of all Things. Our Lord 
was pleafed to Inftitute this Sacrament in Memory of 
his Sufferings, becaufe he was fenfible, that without this 
V'lfible Reprefentation of them, the Generality of Men 
would be wholly Unmindful of them. And, 2%, Be- 
caufe fuch a Remembrance of Inimitable Inexprefiibie 
Love to Mankind, VN'ould be the flrongeft Argument 
f )r a Firm Trufi: and Confidence in him, both in Life 
and Death. The Inference is Jufl and Undeniable: If 


The Art of T>ymg u>eU. 165 

Chrift laid down his Life for Manldnd, we have good 
Reafon to Depend upon his Providence, and to think 
pur lelyes (afe under his Proteftion. 

Another Advantage of this Heavenly Feafl: is, That 
it Fills the Min^ roith Divine Grace : For as all Corpo- 
ral Food does r^frelh, nourifti, ftrengthen, and exhila- 
rate all the Parts of the Body ^ and as too much Abfti- 
nence does enfeeble and deprefs the Spirits, and fink the 
whole Humane Frame into Weaknefs and Decay ^ ia 
the fan^ manner does the Grace of God, which is 
the Food of the Soul, and the Spiritual Nourilhment 
of it, aftuate, enliven, and confirm all the Powers ancf 
Faculties of it. The Mind, by this means, is Reple- 
nilhed with a delightful Remembrance of ail the wonder- ' 
ful Mercies of God, and efpecially of that Amazing In- 
ftance of his Love, the Redemption of Mankind, by^ 
the Sufferings of his Son. The Vnderfiandlng^ in this 
Heavenly Banquet, is Feafted and Filled with the lar- 
geft Meafure- not only of Habitual, but alfo of A€lual 
Faith ; which Purifies the Underftanding from afi Igno- 
rance and Error, and Cleanfes the Heart from all the 
Pollutions of Sin, and Enriches the Mind with ih^ 
Knowledge; of Heaven, and Heavenly Things, thereby 
creating an IneTprefiible Delight to the Soul. To Con- 
clude this Particular : The Will of Man, in this Divine 
Feaft, is filled with fo Firm a Hope^ and fo Flaming a 
0jarity j the Latter of which alone is the Perfe£lion of 
all Grace, that it will be Impoffible for him, in this 
State of Life, to receive any farther Communications 
of it. 


1 66 The Art of 7)jing well. 

Another Advantage, Thirdly^ Of this Heavenly En- 
tertainment, is ^ That 'tis a fure Pledge^ to every one 
who is a worthy Communicant of Eternal Glory, This 
Metaphor of a Pledge is taken from a Cu^om among 
Men *, which is, when One Man leaves in the Hands 
of another, in Cafes of Bargain^ or SaUy or Comrafty or 
Tromifej ioniQ Security^ for difcharging what he hasPro- 
niifed to perform. Now Our Lord has left his JSody 
and Blood in the Sacrament, as a Pledge or Security of 
rhat Heavenly Beatitude, which he has Projpiifed ta 
thofe, who Receive it with a Due Preparation of Mind. 
,Whofoever therefore ihall receive the Body and Blood 
of Chrifi with Purity and Reverence, with Humility 
and Gratitude, does receive, at the fame time, a Pledge 
of Future Happinefs. The Spiritual Union of a De- 
parting Soul with Chrift in AfTeftion and Love, which, 
in the Sacrament of the Eucharift^ is wonderfully 
Heightened, and Improved, is an Earned of that Com. 
Biunion which it (hall always hold with him in the 
Kingdom of Heaven. This is the Senfe and Meaning of 
thofe words of St. John^ Rev. xiv. 13. Blejfed are the 
Dead which die in the Lord \ that is, Thofe Perlbns 
who are fpiritually united to God by Faith and Love in 
the Bleffed Sacrament at the Time of their Death, fhall 
afcend with Him into the Regions of Happinefs and 

Thus much may fuffice as to the Firft Particular 
namely, What is necefTary to be Done by a Tick Per- 
fon before he is Admitted to the Holy Comtmnion, j 
go on Now to confider in what Manner he ought to 
Behave himfelf at the lime of Receiving. Now at the 


The Art of Trying well. 167 

Time of Receiving, when the facred Elements appear 
before him, he ought, if his Indifpofition will Permit 
him, to Communicate either in a Kmeling^ or a Lean- 
ing Pofture-, as Expreffing, by that Outward Gefiure^ 
the Inward Lowlinefs and Humility of the Mind. It is 
Obfervable upon this Occafion, that God does many 
times fupport Men with fufficient Strength for that 
purpofe. Juft before his Receiving, I cannot lee how 
he can employ himfelf to more Advantage, than by ba- 
fying his Thoughts in fome ufeful Meditations, or Re- 
citing to kinifelf fome Devout Hymn ^ of which Kind, 
there is None feems to me, to carry with it a more 
Fervent Spirit of Devotion, none in which our 
Faith can be more lively exprefTed, our Hope more ef- 
feftually Excited, and our Affeftions more Inflamed - 
and by Confequence none which is better Adapted to 
the Condition of a Departing Soul, than the Following 
Hymn-i which was made by Thorns Aquinas, * 

HaU^ Sacred Elements ! where God 

Supreme^ has fix*d his bleft Abode, 

Here He^ who with his Preferjce, fills - 

"Earthy Hea'v'n^ and Waters^ Humbly dwells* 

I fee^ tho can^t Conceive his Pow^r^ 

Tet what I cant Conceive^ Adore. 

What Truth has [aid J muft Believe ^ 

The God of Truth . cannot Deceive , 

When Thou upon the Crofs waft jlain^Xx m t«Vi> 

Thy Human Body bore the Fain, 

The Godhead then Withdrew^ but Here 

I fee my God again appear. 

In ' 

1 6 8 The Art of 1>ying isoeU. 

In One Confeffion yet I join^ 

Of tW Human Nature and Divine* 

jind tho* no Outward Marks appear 

Of Faft^ning Nails, or Tainted Spear ^ 

Nor am 1 here allowed to hide. 

My fearching Fingers in thy Side ^ 

Tet J by Faith thy ?re fence view ; 

Tes I Believe, and Praife Thee too* 

Confirm, in my Approaching Deatff, 

This Atlive, and this Lively Faith, ^ 

Excite my Hope, Inflame my Love 

To Men Below, to Thee Above* 

The Holy Robber'' s Pray\ is Mine j 

This Day in Paradife to Shine* 

In thy fad Sacrifice was feen^ 

Of Pain and Death, a Bloody Scene* 

This Bloodlefs Sacrifice in View^ 

Affords me Life, and Pleafure too* 

A Life, the Purefi God can give \ 

A Life, which Angels only Live. 

With thy Dear Blood, O wafh me Clean 

From all the Blemijhes of Sin ! 

One Drop of which Alone can Free, 

And fave a World from Mifery, 

O how my Soul, with Eager Haft ^ 

(Not in the Figures of this Feafi) 

For its Enlargement longs, to fee. 

In Open View, the Fact of Thee ! 

The Art of "Dying weU. 1 69 

"That foj when fefaratehy Deathy 
It leaves me^ with my farting Breath ; 
Without Incumbrance then^ and Free^ 
It may more Clofely Join with thee. 

Having recited this Hymn^ in the moft Devout Man- 
ner, and nude ConfefTion of his Sins to God ; and hav- 
ing alfo received Ahfolution^ and the Blejfmg from the 
Friefly Let the Sick Perfon, with all Humility and Re. 
verence, make ufe of This, or the like ExpreAlon - 
Lord-i l\m not worthy that thou JhouUefi come under my 
Roof'^ and then, having received the Holy Communion^ 
let him add, Into thy Hands-, O God, / commend my 

If, after this, his Indifpofition will give him leave, let 
him employ the fhort Remains of his Life, in a fo- 
lemn Return of Thanks, for this Adorable Inftance of 
the Tranfcendent Love of God towards him, in the 
Benefits whereof he is made Partaker by this Holy Sa- 
crament. It will be farther NecefiTary (ofHlm ; (the 
Words being thought to have been Particularly defigned 
for that purpofe,) to meditate on that remarkable Paf-- 
fage of our Saviour, mentioned in the Revelations : Be- 
hold j I fiand at the Voor^ and knock *, // any one open 
unto mey I will enter into him-, and fup with himj and 
he with me. Our Blefled Saviour^ who Inftituted this 
Sacrament under the Figure of a Feajl^ defires nothing 
more Earneftly, than that all Chriftians fhould often fup 
with him at his Tahte. This is the Senfe and Meaning 
of thofe words, Behold^ I fiand at the Door^ and knock ; 
that is, I my felf, who am the Founder of this Feaft, 
which is a folemn Commemoration of my own Death, 

Z and 

I yo The Art of ^ing well. 

and Sufferings, and who beftow all the Benefits of fpi- 
ritual Life, and Nourifhment to thofe who receive it 
Worthily I my felf Invite you to this Heavenly Ban- 
quet, to Feaft with me. If any one open unto me^ that 
is, if he accepts of my Invitation, and complies with 
my Defires, in Preparing himfelf for this Heavenly En- 
tertainment, and ftiall not, by Dilatory Excufesj and 
Weak Pretences^ keep off from this Holy Feafl ^ By th^ 
Communications of my Grace and Love, / fbi/i enter in* 
to Hintj and fup with Him^ and He with me, NovT 
God may Properly be faid to Sup with us, wK^in he is 
Delighted with our Spiritual Improvements and we 
our felves are no lefs Delighted in the Farther Commu- 
nications of his Holy Spirit to usan this Holy Banquet. 
The fpiritual Feafling of the Soul with God, in the Ho- 
ly Sacrament, occafions the higheft Delegation both in 
God, and in the Soul. God is highly Delighted in pb- 
ferving our Increafe in Grace, and Man is highly de- 
lighted in receiving fuch Benefits from Him. The Chief 
of which Advantages is This *, That in this Divine 
tertrainment^ the Soul is fpiritually united to God. 

This then is the Greateft Happinefs of a Departing 
Soul •, this the Higheft Comfort and Satisfaftion, to 
have Chrift: himfel f Spiritually Prefent in the Holy £«- 
charifl: % to have the Privilege to Open it felf with a Ho- 
ly Confidence before Him *, to Communicate freely to 
Him the Great Difficulties and Confli£ls it labours un- 
der, at the Time of its Separation *, and not only fb, 
but to Intreat his Mercy and Forgivenefs, and Recom- 
mend it felf into the Hands of God. 


The Art of Dying wcU. i y i 


*Jloe Eighth Rule Preparatory to a happy Death^ vpon the 
Approach of ity is ; To confider the Nature, and 
Prevalency of ^tfee-Temptation. 

UPON the Approach of Death, the Common Acfc 
Vf^fary of Mankind, as a Roaring Lton^ feehng 
Vfhom he may Devour j is Indefatigable in his Attempts to 
ruin the Souls of Men. Now the Firfi Temptation 
with which he generally exercifes them at t lis Junc- 
ture, is To try them in their Faith *, namely, Whe- 
ther he cannot perfuade them To Renounce, or Disbe- 
lieve fome Articles of their Creed. For as aJl the My- 
fteries of the Chrifiian Faith, are not only Above the 
Sertfesy but alfo Above ths Reafon of Mankind^ And as a 
Divine Faith is the Foundation Good Works, and 
confequently of our Juftifi cation if He fucceeds in his 
Attempts of Undermining, or Overturning this Foun- 
dation, the whole Superftru£lure of Good Works will 
fall in Courfe. Now this Temptation of the Spiritual 
Enemy of Mankind, in our Laji Hours^ is by much the 
inoft Grievous, and Difficult to be Overcome not on- 
ly Becaufe we have to deal with an Enemy, who is befl 
Skiird in all the Subtle Arts of Temptation •, but alfo 
Becaufe it has been his Conftant Bufinefs to Beguile 
and Deceive Men from the Foundation of the World. 
It was He who at firft Mifguided all the Principal A- 
theiflsj Hereticksy and Schifmaticksy that ever were in 
the World *, many of whom perhaps once were Men of 

Z 2: Great 

17^ The Art of Dying isoell. 

Great Piety and Learning. St. Vaul^ convincM of the 
Great Power of the Devil in this RefpefV, puts us upon 
our Guard. We wreflle not againjl Flefh and, Bloody fays 
he, th+s^is, againft Men, hut againji Principalities^ againji 
Powers^ againft: the Rulers of the Darknefs of this Worldy \ 
againft fpiritual Wickednefs in high Places ^ that is, a- 
gainfl: Devils, who are Spirits ^ and fuch too, as arc ve- 
ry Clofe and Artful in fuiting their Temptations to the 
Age, and Temper, and Different Conftitutions of Men, 
Difpute and Controverfy are not fo Powerful Weapons 
in this Combat with Hell, as is an Aftive an(i' a Well- 
grounded Belief, or a Firm AfTent to the Will of God, 
barely upon the Authority of Him who has Revealed 
it. This is Confirmed by St. Paul in the following Ad- 
vice : Above all Things take ye the Shield of Fatthy where- 
by ye fiall^be Able to quench all the Fiery Darts of the 
Wicked *, Eph. vi. i6. 

Bur, zdly^ Another 7?;«/?f4^io;z which the Devil makes 
life of to reduce Men, at the Approach of Death, is by 
endeavouring to drive them into Defpair, Now Tkis 
Temptation is not only Peculiar to Wicked Men j but 
Good and Well-difpofed Perfons are Frequently exer- 
cifed with it. There are Many Reafons, why God is 
pleafed to Permit the Devil to Try the Refolutions of 
Good Men. This is always done for the more Effec- 
tual, and Advantagious Exercife of Many Chriftian Gra- 
ces and Virtues \ fometimes for the Trial of their Faith, 
fometimes of their Patience, at others of their Steadi- 
nefs, and Integrity, and Zeal. Nor is this the Cafe 
only of Good Men, that they are fubje^l to Tempta- 
tions for the Exercife of their Virtue, but 'tis alfo many 
ti. lies the Condition of wicked Men, for the Punifh- 


The Art of ^jing well. ij ^ 

ment of their Vice. When the Devil has perfuaded 
Men to go on in a Habitual Courfe of Sinning, till the 
Approach of Death, it is no hard Matter than to per- 
fuade them farther, that it is next to an Impoffibility 
to Repent in fo Ihort time, as they are like to continue 
here *, Efpecially if it be True, what is Generally Be- 
lieved, that he has Power to lay Open in the Fullefi: 
Light, to the Confciences of Men, the Guilt and Hei- 
noufnefs of all their Sins : Befides ^ the Ufual Hindran- 
ces to Confideration and Conviftion are then removed, 
and T}?5ngs appear with a Different Face to a Dying 
Perfon, to what they do to One who is in a State of 
Health. The Tumult and Bufinefs of the World, the 
Pleafures and Diverfions of Life, which before Pre- 
vented him from Thinking, or at leaft Thinking to any 
Good Purpofe, are now fo far from giving him any En- 
tertainment, and Satisfa£lion, that the very Remem- 
brance of them, efpecially if they were Sinful and Ex- 
cefiive, is full of Gall and Bitternefs to him. 

But, ^Mj/j If the Devil does not fucceed either in 
his Temptations to Infidelity^ or Defpair-^ the next 
Step he takes, is to lead them by degrees from , a 
State of Friendfhip and Favour with God, into a Ha- 
tred of Him. The moft Generous Principle of all Obe- 
dience to God, is the Love of Him \ and therefore if 
the Great Enemy of Mankind can perfuade Men, efpe- 
cially in their laft Hours, into an Averfion to him 
This is the Mafter-piece of all the Subtleties of Hell, 
and ends in the Final Deftrudlion both of Body and 
Soul. But this Being the Cafe of very Few, I lhall not 
Enlarge upon it. . 

C H A P. 

I J4. The Art of 7)jing well. 


The Ninth Rule Preparatory to a Hoffy Beathy ujon the 
j^pproach of it^ is \ To have Recourfe to fuch Re- 
medies, for the Refiftance of Temptation, as God 
has prelcribed. 

IN the Laft Chapter ^ I have confidered the Preva- 
lency of thofe Temptations, which Men Ire moft 
cxpofed to, upon their Departure out of this World ; 
and having Difcovercd the Dlfeafes^ I fhall with more 
Advantage Proceed now to Prefcribe furh Remedies as 
are beft fuited to the Cure of them. The Firft has a 
Relation to Thofe who have the Right Ufe of their 
Reafon, aild are Capable of Good Advice ^ Refpc^ting 
no way the Cafe of Thofe Perfons, who are difcom- 
pofed with Melancholy and Vapoun, and will Believe 
Slothing that is fiid to them. The Second Remedy is 
more General, and relates to the whole Body of Man- 
kind, as being fuited to the Neceflities of Man, not 
only in a State of Temptation, but alfb in all Tempo- 
ral and Spiritual Exigencies whatfoever. 

As to the Flrft: Remedy *, namely, if a Man be any 
way Tempted to Infidelity-, or a Disbelief of One, or 
More of the Articles of the Chrifiian Faith *, more Par- 
ticularly that he cannot, by Reafon, Account for a7r/- 
7nty of Perfons in the Vnity of the Godhead^ or any o- 
ther Myftery whatfoever *, let him. confider that 
all the Myfteries of Chriftianity, tho* they lay above 
the Comprehenfion of Human Reafon, y-et that it is 


The Art of Dying weU. ij^ 

higKly agreeable to the Principles of Human Reafon to 
Believe them inafmuch as the Belief of them is fup- 
ported by the Teftimony and Authority of God hini, 
felf. It is Impofiible for Human Reafon to Account 
for the Manner of Exiftence, even of Created and Cor- 
poreal Beings in any One Inftance, and yet Human Rea- 
fon is Convinced at the fame time time that they do 
Exift. The* a Man cannot Account by Reafon for the 
Vnion of the Sotil with the Bodyy or can tell in what 
manner One T article of the Body is United to another - 
yet no Man is fo Weak as to Disbelieve the reality of 
thcfe Fa£ls, tho' they cannot Comprehend them. 
There is no Propofition m the Mathematicks more Cer- 
tain, than That every Star in the Firmament is Greater 
than the whole Globe of the Earth, and yet the Grei- 
teft Part of Mankind will not Believe This, tho' it be 
Capable of being Demonftrated by Flrjt Principles* 
Now the Force of the Argument lies Here^ That if a 
Human Reafon be many limes at a lofs in the Comprc- 
henfion of the Modes and Circiimjlances of Material 
BeingSj it is no Wonder, if it be much more Baffled and 
Confounded in the Contemplation of Spiritual and 
Immaterial Obje^ls. The Authority of Divine Revela- 
lation, and that Revelation Confirmed by Infinite Mi- 
raculous Inftances of a Supernatural Power, is a fuffi- 
dent Foundation for the Belief of all the Myfteries of 

If. the Temptation relates, in a Particular Manner, 
only to the Power of God, and his Inconceivable JVays 
of Afting in the World, fo that a Man cannot recon- 
cile to himfelf the feeming Inconfiftencics of them ^ 


176 The Art of Tfying 'well. 

and Therefore that he ought not to Believe them, be^ 
caufe he cannot Comprehend them v let him Confider 
with himfelf. That 'tis eafy to produce an Infinite Va- 
riety of Inftances in the Works of the Creationy of 
which we can give no Reafonable Account in what 
Manner they were firft Created, nor in what manner 
they now Perform their Operations^ tho* we are fully 
Convinced of Both. What Finite Underftanding can 
Conceive a Power Able to Create the Univerfe, and to 
Raife the whole Frame of Nature out of Nothing ? 
There is not a Star in the Heavens, nor a F&wer in 
the Field, the Beauty and Delicacy of whofe Work- 
man ftiip does not far exceed the Knowledge of the 
mod Capacious Mind. But what Iball I fay of that 
Amazing Inftance of the Power of God The Refur- 
reEhion of a Human Body ? How is it Poflible to Con- 
ceive that the Bodies of all Mankind, Moulder'd, it 
may be, into Duft and Afties, or Devoured by Wild 
Beafts, or Incorporated into Trees, or Plants, or Herbs> 
fhaU rife again, at one Awakening Call, with Frefti 
Additions of Beauty and Comelinefs ? And yet this 
Do£lrine of the RefurreEtion has been univerfally held 
by the Catholkk Church in all Ages ^ nor was the Incon- 
ceivablenefs of it ever looked upon as a good Objedion 
againft the Truth of i:. See with what an AfTurance Ho- 
ly Job-i One of the moft Antientof the Infpired Writers j 
cxpreflts upon this Occafion : J know ^ fays he, that my 
Redeemer liveth^ and that he fball fland at the latter Day 
npcn Earth *, and tho\ after my Skin^ Worms defiroy thU 
Jiody-i yet in my llefo JJjatl J fee God \ whom J fijall fee 


The Art of Dying well 4 ijj 

fir my filf, and mine Eyes Jball behold^ and not another 'f 
Chap. xix. 25, 26, 27. 

,\{ a Man be Tempted, in the Next Place ^ to Defpair-, 
or to withdraw his Hope and Confidenee from God, by 
reafon of the Number and Greatnefs of his Sins againft 
Him \ the next effeftual Remedy againft all Tempta- 
tions of this kindj is the Confideratlon of God's Infinits 
Mercies % far exceeding, in the Number and Greatnefs 
of Them, all his Tranfgrcflions. Mercy is the Belovtd 
Attribute of God, the moft Lovely Ornament of the 
Divinity. It is the moft Amiable Perfeftion of his 
own Nature, as it is, what he is mpft Pelighted with irt 
Others. vfrfw v 

..The Titles given by Mofes to God J^re The Lard^ tt^e 
Lord God J Merciful f and GracioHSy Forgiving Iniquity f 
Tranfgrejfiotti and Stn» The Royal TJalmifi very ele- 
gantly expreffesthe DifFufivenefs of God's Goodnefs to. 
Mankind, where he tells us, That the Lord Loving, 
unto every Man, and his Mercy is over all his H^orks ^ 
And the Character given of him in th^ New Teflamem^ 
which is. That he is Love itfelf. ' 

But, zdlyy In all Cafes of Defpondency^ XhtConfidera^ 
tion of the Death und Sat is fa^ ion of our Bleffed Saviour t 
is- another Prevailing Remedy* For there is no Sin, hoW 
Great foever, to which the Benefits of Chrifi's Satisfies 
tion do not extend, according to that Text of St. John \ 
And he is the Propitiation for our Sins \ and not for oufi 
^nlyy but alfo for the Sins of the whole World j i Ep. iii, 
% The Reafoning of the ApoMe^ on this Occafwn, 1* 
Strong and Condufive i If God f pared not his Sony but 
delivered him up for how Jhall he notj alfo with htrfi^ 
~^r r A a fmly 

1 7S The Art of T>ymg weU. 

freely give m all Things ? Rom. viii. 32. If ever a 
Man is Tempted to Doubt of the Mercy of God 5 
will not this Tranfcendent Inftancc of it Convince Mm, 
how Condefcending, how highly DeHghted he is to *> 
us Good? If the Heinoufnefs of his Sins give him no 
Comfortable Profpeft of God's Mercy \ will it not 
Cheer and Revive his Heart, to Confider with himftif. 
That fuch a Punilhment has been fufFered for the Expia- 
tion of them, fuch an ample Satisfaftion made, as God 
himfelf has been pleafed to Accept, and Avow^ to be 
Meritorious for them ? So that now he has nothing to 
do but with a Penitent Heart, and a Lively Faith to 
embrace the Mercy which isPurchafed for him. -^^^^^^^ 
3%, If a Man be Tempted to a Befpair of Gb'd's 
Mercy, by reafon of the Greatnefs and Number of his 
Sins let the Confidcration of the Necefity of Repen- 
tance lead him to a Senfe of himfelf. This is the Pre^ 
vailing Means which God has been pleafed to appoint 
for the Removal of all that Load of Guilt and Uneafi. 
liefs which Sin leaves upon the Soul : Come mto me all 
that Travel^and are heavy Laden,and I wHl refrejh youSiy% 
our BlelTed Saviour Mat. xi. 28. What a Kmd Cbra- 
^alTionate Invitation to Repentance is Here ? With 
what Tendernefs andAffeftion does he Befeech Men to 
Come unto him ? And that he might be fure to win 
them by fuch foft Engagements of Love, There is a 
Promife alfo, full of the higheftConfolation to an af- 
fliaed'Soul, annexed to their Obedience*, Md I TPiH 
Refrejh you. Tlie gteateft Pleafures of the Rational Soul, 
next to Thofe of Innocence, are the Delights which a-, 
rife from a fincere Repentance nay,ia fomeRefpeas, 


The of Dying well. 179 

they are Above them inafmuch as that Man, who has 
(niarted under the Senfe of Guilt, by a long Abfence of 
J^cligipus Pleafure, does more Highly Relifli it, than 
who has lived in continual Complacencies of Virtue. 
' But, ^hlyj The Remarkable Examples of the Con- 
yerfion of the Greateft Sinners, is a farther Encourage- 
ment for a Religious Truft and Confidence in God. 
The Cafe of the Prodigal Son feemed to be Delperately 
Deplorable, even Beyond the Hopes of Mercy, and the 
Power of Repentance ^ for his whole Life was one 
Continiied Scene of Luxury, Difobedience, and Plea- 
Ture. His Vices were grown Habitual and Confirmed j 
^nd he was fo far Immerfed in the Things of Flefli and 
Senfe, that there was fcarcc Room for Convi£lion; 
and yet his Repentance at laft came up to the Heinouf- 
nefs of his Crimes*, And the Mercy of God, in theFor- 
givenefs of them, exceeded his Repentance, and his 
Sins too. No foonerwas the Acknowledgment made ^ 
Father y J have finned agalnfi Heaven^ dec, but he was re- 
ceived into Favour, with all the Expreffions of Tender- 
nefs and Joy. The next Inftance is That of SuPaul^ 
who being a Perfecutor of the Church of Chrift, by the 
Preventing Grace of God became a Preacher of its Doc- 
trines, and at laft 'Diedin the Defence and Confirmation 
of Them. This is the Argument which He himfelf 
makes ule of, for a Holy Confidence in God, in his own 
Cafe : This is a Faithful Sayings and Worthy of all Ac-^ 
ceptationy that Chrifi Jefus came into the Worlds to fave 
Sinners J of whom I am Chief Howbeit^ for this Caufe J 
obtained Mercy^ that in 7ne Chriji Jefus might Jhew forth 
(ill Long^Suffering-i for a Pattern to them^ who Jhould here* 
nper believe on him to eternal Life : i Tim. i, 15, 16. 
Aa * \i 

1 So The Art of Trying well. 

If the Ca/e^ in the Lafi Place, be fuch That a Man 
is Tempted to a Hatred of God^ hy throwing off his 
Allegiance to him, and entering into a Fellow ftiip with 
the Devil ^ The Beft Advice, on this Occafioa, is, to 
Confider that the Devil is a Deceiver, and that he Im- 
pofes upon the Underftandings of Men, by giving them 
iFalfe Notions of God, in Reprefenting him as a Crucl^ 
an la^placable, and a Revengeful Behg. The Charac- 
ter given of the Devil by our BlefTed Saviour, is This 5 
Whijn he fpeaketh a Lye^ he fpeaketh of his Qmn *, for he 
is a Lyar^and the Father of it : John viii. 44. ^lie Firft 
Temptation he made upon Mankind was by a notorious 
Lye. God had exprefly Aflured Adam^ That if he eat 
of the Forbidden Fruit, he fhould furely Dye The 
Devil tells him on the Contrary, That if he eat of it, 
he fhould furely Live. Thus it is, that he ftill conti- 
nues to Deceive Men *, Either by Reprefenting fuch and 
fiich A£lions not to be finful, which really are fo \ or 
elfe by Reprefenting them lefs finful than they arc \ 
iind this He does, either by Blinding the Minds of Men 
by Partiality and PrepofTeffion, or by DrelTing up thofc 
Alliens in the Appearances of Kmue and HoVmefs \ By 
Difguifing and Covering them over with theProfpefl of 
'Tleafure^or Profit^ or Recommending under the Specious 
Titles of Great?7efs and Honour Temptations, fuch a£ 
the moft fteddy Virtue is hardly Proof againfi:, and by 
which the moft Heroick Examples of Goodnefs have 
been foiled, and overcome. 

Now in all Temptations of this Kind, the moft Ef- 
feftual Remedy for a Man, is ^ To be Cautious and 
always upon his Guard *, To look farther than Outward 
Shew, and Appearance, and to fearch beforehand into 


The Art of Dying weS. 1 8 1 

the Nature^ and Circuwfianees^ and Confequences of his 
own Alliens. Common Experience will convince him, 
that all the Promifes which the Devil ever made him 
were Fallacious ^ a Delufion either upon his Senfcsy or 
his Vnderflandirjg *, And that whatfoever feeming Pleafurc 
or Advantage they carry'd with them at prefent, they 
were generally followed with the Stings and Lalhes 
his own Guilty Mind. 

I proceed now to confider the SecoKd Remedy which 
God has prefcribed againft all Temptation \ and which 
indeed is tnore General, tho' not lefs Efficacious, as it 
Extends it felf not only to all the Temporal, but alfo to 
all the Spiritual Wants and Exigencies of Men ^ and 
that is, theExercife of Prayer and Devotion, viz. Whc- 
ther a Man, in the time of his Indifpofition, fliall ad- 
drefs himfclf in fecret Prayer to God •, or whether he 
be affifted with the Joint Petitions of his Minifiery and 
other Devout Perfons. The Effectual Fervent Prayer^ of a 
Itigkeotu Marty the Aptflle tells us, availeth much. If 
the Devil afted with an irrefiftible Prevalency in his 
Temptations upon Mankind, it would be of little Sig- 
nificancy to Apply to Heaven for Grace and Strength 
to fubduc them \ but as he afts only by a Permiffioa 
from God, and not with any Compulfive Influence o^ 
the Minds of Men ^ this Permiffion may be fufpendedf 
by that Power ^ upon a Devout Application to Him. St» 
jiuftitiy in his Expofition of thofc words in the 35th 
Pfalm, Say mtoTnySouly lam thy 5<3/'y^f>W, does plainly 
illuftrate this Truth ; but more Particularly, and more 
Fully in the Cafe of Holy Job: The Devily fays he, has 
vo Power over Meriy hut what he receives from the Fourth 
rain of aH Power* He had indeed a Power to Envy thu 


1 8 ^ The Art of Dying well 

TatieHt Man^ hut he had no Power to Hurt him* Ht 
might Accn^e him^ but he could not Condemn him* He 
had no Power to Injure him evn in a Hair of his Head^ 
but hy God's Per miffion. Nay^ he could not fo much <u 
Tempt him^ till he requefled that Liberty from God j Put 
firth thy Hand now \ that is, Do Thou withdrajp thy Pro-- 
vidence from him., and leave him to my Power y and he 
will curfe thee to thy Face, 7%e Permijfion was granted : 
The One Tempts^ the Other if Tempted. He that was 
Tempted^ conquered^ the Tempter was overcome : For tho* 
God permitted the Devil to deprive him of all hisSubfiance^ 
yet he did not entirely For fake him^ but Fortifiecithe Mind 
of his Faithful Servant with fujfcient Strength to fubdue his 
Tem^ptations. O the Prevalency of Divine Grace f Man 
who was conquered in Paradife^ conquers upon a Dunghil J 
There he was Overcome by the Devily at the Perfuafion of 
the Woman \ f^ere he overcomes theDevil, and the Woman 

t; I cannot Finifti this Chapter^ without a Juft Com. 
plaint againft Thofe, who only pay a mere Formd Cuf. 
t-pmary V'lfit to fick Perfons, without any Intention of 
|oining in Prayer with them. Such an Unfeafonable Ci- 
vility as This is as little Beneficial to our felves, as it 
is to them \ nay, many times it is a great Hinderance 
to them in their Preparations for Eternity ^ Inaftnuch 
asit engages them in ufelefs and unprofitable Difcourfe. 
Whereas the Religious End and Defign of Vifiting the 
Sidy is either to Afllft them with our Advice, or with 
our Prayers *, or elfe to Imprint the Confideration of 
Theirs and our Own Mortality more Deeply upon our 
ielves : For as the Prayers of Good Men are Effectual 
with God, and as the Devil is Indef4tigahle in his Temp- 

rations at our latter End , thefe are ftrong Obligatiort;^ 
tipoaMen, to Exert themfelves with the utmoft Fan 
vcftcy of Devotion, in favour of a Departing Soul. 

.nnim,^ C'H A P. X.* ^"^^^ - 

The. Tenth Rule Prefaratory to a haffy Death j upon the 
jipfroach of it^ is j To Confider the XJncertaingf 
of Human Life. , ifjiim 3Md ; tiM. 

IN the Preceeding Chapters, I have Adapted my 
Rules for Dying well to thofe Perfons, who arc 
,nbt fnatched away at once, but go off the Stage of this 
World l)y a Leifurable Decay of Nature: I Proceed 
now to Confider the Cafe of thofe Men, who tho' they 
may Have ho Lingerlrtg Diftemper upon them, and 
who, it may be, are at prefent in a very good State 
of Health, yet, as to all Human Appearance, maybe 
in as much Danger of Dying, as thofe who are vifited 
with any Dangerous Illnefs. Now this may Properly 
be ^fteemed the Cafe of Three Sorts of Men : For, in 
th&Brft Placey there are fome Men to whom Death is 
JS^ear-y Vtuforefee^j and yet veryCm^/?;^ This is, the 
Cafe of thofe Perfons who are feized with an j^pa- 
plexj/j or ftruck with Lightnmg fiom Heaven. There 
are Others again, to whom Death is feemingly \jery 
Mear-, not- altogether Vnforefem, or Certah^ bfit yet 
j^cry ProhaUs'^ and this is the Cafe Particularly of thaic 
who are Concerned in Military Employmnrs, and of 
thofe who are in Contijiual Danger at 5ca. There ai;e 


1 84 The Art of Dying well. 

Others, L^tjityy to whom Death is s try Near ^ not Vn- 
forefeerty nor Vncertsin \ and This is the Cafe of thofet 
owho lay under a Legal Sentenccj in order for Execution, 

As to the Cafe of Thofe Perfons to whom Death is 
Near^ Vnforefeerti and yet very Certain ^ a very drift 
Severity of Life, and a Conftant, or rather a Continual 
Remembrance of Death is highly Neceflary. It is the 
Higheft Inftance of Human Prudence, much more of 
Religious Wifdom, to Provide againft the worft that 
may befal a Man *, bat much more fo, when zn^ Negleft 
or Omiffion in that Cafe is of the worft Confequencc 
to him. Now there is no Inftance can be given, in the 
whole Compafe of Religion, wherein he eipofes him* 
felf to greater Dangers, and greater Punifliments, than 
In his Unpreparednefe for his laft Hour. Watch there- 
forey for ye know neither the Day^ nor the Hour^ when 
the Son of Man comethj ought to be a Conftant Lefture 
ot Mortality to thefe Men ; feemingly Grievousi 
but really Valuable Neceflity, where I am fo ftriftly 
obliged to purfue what is Beft, what is moft Realb- 
nable, what is moft Profitable foF me ! If God had 
commanded me to undergo all the fad Scene of Mi- 
fery and Perfecution which the Primitive Martyrs 
" fuffered, ought! not to have bore it with Bravery and 
Rcfolution? Does not even Perfecution it felf look 
Lovely, and even Death it felf Defirable to a Reli-, 
poufly CompofedMind? Why then fha!l I com- 
plain, when I am not commanded toexpofemy felf 
** to Danger, but to Provide only for my own Safety? 
The Pleafing Command is Watch : Awake thou that 
(leepfft'i md arifc from the Dead, and Chrifi fhail give 

The Art of "Dying well. ^185 

•* thes Light. Thou wilt Reply perhaps, That to Dye 
thus fuddenly is only the Cafe of a very Few A'- 
low 'tis true, yet how canft thou afTure thy fdf^ 

" that Thou thy felf art nbt of the Number of thofe 
Few ? If this at laft fhould be thy fad Condition, 

" what Satisfa£lion will it Then be to Confider, that 

" Numbers have efcaped the lame Punilhment ? Thou 
art now Forewarned of the furprizing Summons, 
Repeat the Awakening Call ^ Wauh^ for thou horvefi 
. neither the Day^ nor the Howr^ when the Son of Man . 

But, zdlyjhs to the Cafe of thofe Perfons, who are con- 
cerned in a Military Employment^ there are other Rules 
which are better adapted to the Different Circumflan- 
ces of thefe Men. The Firji is, That they would en- 
quire whether the War they engage in be Juftifiable or 
not : For altho' War in its own Nature, and in the 
General Notion of it, be no ways Unlawful ^ yet if it 
be undertaken upon any unjuftifiable Motives^ or car- 
ried on by Unwarrantable Means^^ or Dire£led it to Bad 
Ends^ it is certain that no Man can engage himfelf ia 
it without Sin. If he is forced into the Service^ by the 
Will and Pleafure of his Vrince^ let him be Convinced 
at leaft that the War he is engaged in is not mlawful. 
For thus it is. That St. Aufiin^ in his Book againft 
Faufim the Manichee^ decides this Cafe: The Prince and 
the Soldier^ fays he, lay under Different Conviilions as to 
. the Lawfulnefs of War : The One ought to he Convincd,that 
the War he engages in he Lawful ^ the Other ^ That it is 
not Vnlawful. But, zdly^ It is NecefTary that Thofe 
who are concerned in any Military Employment^ Ihould 

Bb Obrerve 

1 86 The Art of T)ykg well. 

Obferve thofe Direftions given by them by John the 
Baptifij who being asked by the Soldiers^ What they 
fljould do to he faved ? were anfwered, Do Violence to 
no Man-i neither accufe any fdjly^ and he content with 
your Wages ; Luke iii. 14. The Laft Advice to thelc 
Perfons is, that they would Fortify Themfeives with 
their own Innocence, that lb they might be Able, with 
the fame Courage, to Face an Eternal Death, as they 
are a Temporal One ; and to Fight, with equal Brave- 
ry, againft the IVorldy the FleJ^j and theDevi^diS they 
would againft any Secular Power whatfoevcr. ' 

Thefe Rules are no lefs Applicable to the Cafe of thofe 
Perfons who arc in Continual Danger at Sea ; and do 
as exprefly Condemn all VnlawfuL Engagements^ all 
Tyratical Depredations^ as they Require an Even and 
Conftant Courfe of Holy Living. 

But, Laflly^ The Cafe of Perfons under the Sen- 
tence of the Law for Capital Crimes, is, in (bme Re" 
fpefts, far Different from the Cafe of the Perfons A- 
bovementioned ; For it is Unqueftionably Certain, tha^ 
thefe Men for the moft part fufFer Juftly ; if they 
fufFer Juftly, they have all the Reaibn in the World to 
make the Beft Ufe of that fliort time they have to live 
in the World, in their Preparations for Eternity. The 
moft EfFe6lual way to do This, is, to Confider, Firfi: . 
The Nature of the Crime they have been Guilty of ; 
whether it be Theft ^ Treafon^ Adultery^ Murder^ or 
the like. Secondly^ To Refle€l with themfeives, That 
every Publick Vice carries with it a Deeper Dye than 
fuchSins as are of a Private Nature, as giving Greater 
Offence to others, and as Being a Breach of that Order 


The Art of ^ying well. i Sy 

and Government, by which alone whole Kingdoms and 
0)mmunities of Men are Supported and Maintained. 
Thirdly, They ought to enquire ; Whether they have 
not Drawn others into the Commiffion of the fame 
Sin, and by that Means have been Inftrumental to their 
Death alfo 5 and in this Cafe a very Solemn and Extra- 
ordinary Repentance is requ ired of them. But then, 
Laftly, This Repentance will be no ways Acceptable to 
God, unlefs alfo they make Reparation, as far as they 
are Able, for the Injuries they have done to others, and 
efpecially^to That Society or Government of which 
riiey are iSiembers. But in all Cafes of this Nature, it 
will be NecefTary to have Recourfe to the Advice and 
Dire£lions of Thofe, whofe Profeffion enables them, to 
give more Particular Inftruflions, according to the Na^ 
ture and Circumfldnces of the Faft committed. 


ji Fra^icd Confideration of the Happy Death of Good 


I Have now gone thro* all the Rules Preparatory to a 
Happy Death, I propofed to (peak of ; and fball 
Proceed to Confider, by way of Application, the 
Great Advantages of Dying well. Now altho* it is a 
Matter of no great Difficulty for any Man, Provided 
he is but willing, to Prepare himfelf for Death, yet it is 
a Bufinefs of the Higheft Importance to him, and even 
in this World, affords him the Greateft Satisfaftion of 
Mind-, In the F/>y? Place, That his Whole Converfa- 
tion has Jjecn Innocent and Confcientious with Relpef^ 

Bb 2 to 

1 8 8 Tlx An of 'Dying well. 

to Himfelf ; and, Secondly^ That it has been Exempla- 
ry and Ufeful with Regard to others. 

IwouldObferve, in the Place, That an Innocent 
Converfation refrefh.^s the Minds of Good Men with a 
Peculiar Alacrity, not only in all the Difficulties and 
Afflictions of Life, but does alfo Enliven them with 
an Uncommon Chearfulnefs at the Hour of Death. 
There is a Great Difference between all Spiritual and 
Senfual Pleafures ; the latter of which we have fcarcc 
any Relifh of, when the Body is oppreflTed with Pain 
and Weaknefs ; whereas the Pleafures of Reli^'on do at 
that Jun<n:ure affefl the Soul in a more fenfible manner ; 
and amongfl: all the Pleafures of Religion, none lb much 
a"S a R3ber Refieif^ion upon a Man's own Innocence and 

When a Departing Good Man furveys all the Different 
Stages of his pa ft Life, and beholds a Regular and Uni- 
form Courfe of Piety and Obedience, how does he ap- 
plaud himfelf in the Delightful Profpe^l, and Congra- 
tulate himfelf that he is now almoft out of Danger, and 
Beyond the reach of Temptation ? " I feel, fays he, 
*' amidft all thefe Pains and Terrors of Death, fuch O- 
verflowings of Delight, fuch Exultations of Con- 
fcience as are a Kind of Foretafte of thofe Joys I am 
entering upon. O the fweet Remembrance of thofe 
Difficulties I have Conquered, of thofe Affliflions I 
*' have bore with Patience, of that Fortitude where- 
with I bravely Encountered, wherewith 1 Triumphed 
over my Spiritual Enemies. This is my Rejoicing, 
with St, Pauly the Tcjlimony of my Con fcience, that in 
Simplicity and Godly Sincerity I have had my Conver- 
^' fat ion in the World, / have fought a good Fight, I 

" have 

The Art of T)ying well. 1 8 ^ 

have fimfljed my Courfe^ I have kept the Faith Hence- 

forth there is laid up for me a Crown of Right eoufnefs \ 
w i, e. I have Lived righteoufly, I fhall Dye psaceably, 

I fliall Reign triumphantly in Heaven. 

But then, lAly^ There is another RefleiHiion which 
affords a Good Man the Greateft Satisfaftion at the 
time of his Death ^ and that is, That he has been Ex- 
emplary, and Beneficial to Mankind. The Greateft 
Pleafure of a Good Man's Confcience, next to the Con- 
fideration of his own Innocence, is \ That by a vifible 
Piety, ^nd a ftiining Converfation, he has in fome 
Senfe C^imunicated his Virtue to others. It is the Na- 
ture of Goodnels to Spread and DifFufe itfelf ; and the 
■ Pious Chriflian cannot be Content to be Religious him- 
lelf, but endeavours to make others Religious alfo. He 
fets the Fair Example which they Tranfcribe, and Re- 
flects with the fame Complacencies on Their Virtues, as 
they do Themfelves. But Then, when to the Confide- 
ration of an Exemplary Piety, he adds the Delightful 
Reflexion of his Beneficence to Mankind, his Joys rife 
in Proportion to his Charity, and he Feafts himfelf 
.with thofe Benefactions he has beftowed on others. 
Thofe Comforts and Delights which he gave to the 
Affli£led Part of Men, do now fpring up in his own 
Bofoni, and he Triumphs in being fo like his Heavenly 
Father, whofe Charafter it is, That he u Good, and 
does Good : Becaufe I delivered the Poor that cryed^ fays 
he, and the Fatherlefs^ and him that had none to help \ 
Becaufe I ^as Eyes to the Blind-, and Feet was I to the 
Lame ^ and made the Widow's Heart to fing for Joy : 
T herefore fays he, the Bleffmg of him that was ready to Pe- 
rifl) is now coine upon me \ Job xxix. 15, i6, 17. 


1 90 The Art of Dying well. 

But then, zdly^ Befides that Peace of Confcience 
which revives and fupports a Dying Man, there is alfo 
a. far Greater Happinefs then in view, which, in all 
the Agonies of his Diftemper, fupports him with a 
Holy Courage, and that is the Profpeft of Immorta- 

There is no Propofition in Philofophy more Certain 
than this, He that Dies welly Dies happily. It is no 
lefs Certain, o a the other hand. That an Vnha^ Death 
is ths Natural Confequence of a Wicked Life y and that 
'tis Morally ImpofTible it fhould be otherwife. /The on- 
ly Difference in the Death of Good and Bad Men, is 
This^ that the One paffes out of a Mortal and Mifc 
rable Life, into a State of Happinefs and Immortality % 
the Other, out of a Short, a Perifhing, and Compara- 
tively Happy Life, to a Life of Endlefs Pain and Tor- 
nient and which indeed may more Properly be called 
an Eternal Death for wicked Men fliall then be en- 
tirely Dead to all Senfation of Delight and Pleafure, and 
Alive only to a fad Perception of Mifery and Punifh- 

This Difcri^iination of the State of Good and Bad 
Men in another Life, is fully attefted in the Holy Wri^ 
tings: I heard d Voice from Heaven^ {ays Stjohn^ fay- 
ing unto wf. Write ^ Bleffed are the Dead which Die in 
the Lord *, even fo faith the Spirit ^ for they reji from 
their Labowsy and their Works do follow them : P».ev. 
xiv. 1 3. There are fome Interpreters^ who are of Opi- 
nion, that thefe words relate only to thofe who fufFer 
Martyrdom \ but they are more Generally, and with 
jnore Truth, applyed to All thofe who Die in a State of 
Gr^ce and Favour with God. St Bermdy in one of 

The \Art of T)ying wcU. 1 9 1 

his Epiflles concerning the Macchabees^ confirms this 
Expofition of them: " Bleffed are the Dead, fays he y 
which die in the Lord *, not only thofe who die far 
the Lord, as the Martyrs, but alfo thofe who die m 
the Lord, as the Confeflbrs. There are two Confi- 
derations which Recommend Death to us ; an Ex- 
emplary Life, and a Good Caufe ^ the Caufe of Dy- 
•* ing in Defence of Religion rather than a Holy Life. 

How Lovely therefore, how Valuable muft fuch a 
** Death appear to us, which is Recommended both by 
" an Exl^iplary Life, and a Good Caufe ? " It is for 
this Reafon that the Church which is the Beft Interpre- 
ter of Scripture y enjoins, That this PafTige be always 
ufed in the Service for the Burial of the Dead, Bleffed 
are the Dead which die in the Lord *, that is, BleflTed are 
all thofe who, at the time of Death, are united to God 
in Heart, and AfFeftion, as Lively Members of the 
Head, which is Chriji, Thus it is faid of St. Stephen^ 
That he fell afleep in the Lord *, that is, that he was 
united in Spirit and Love to him, as the Members arc 
joined to the Head. 

Wherein this Bleflednefs does more Peculiarly Con- 
fift, St. John proceeds to Explain in the words follow- 
ing : Even fo faith the Spirit^ for they reft from their La- 
bours. The Holy Spirit of Truth, which cannot De- 
ceive Men, aflbres them, that Death puts an end to 
all the Toils, Fatigues, and Difficulties of Good Men, 
and that then commences an univerfal Ceflation from 
all Labour *, and not only fo, but an Eternal Sahha^th 
Rifes upon them ; a Life Abounding with the Fullnefs 
of Joy they are now entering upon ; For their Works 
follow them. Tho' all their Good Anions are paft and 


1^2 The Art of Dying well. 

gone, yet they ftill continue in the BlefTed Effe£ls, and 
Conf^quenccs of them, and they lhall receive the Re- 
wards of them in a Future State. The Royal Prophet^ 
Defcribing the Charafter and the Reward of the Righ- 
teous Man, does thus cxprels hi mfelf, He hath difperfed 
abroad-^ he hath given to the Poor-, and his Rightfoufnefs 
remalneth for ever \ Plal. cxii. 9. The Money indeed, 
which was the Inftrument of his Bounty, he leaves be 
hind him ; but his Charity, his Beneficence, his Com- 
paflion, which moved him to a Generous Affiftance of 

his Poor Brethren, attend him in their Rew^ds into 


another World, and enrich him with fuch an Affluence 
of Happincfs and Pleafure, as will continue always. 
But not only the Works of Charity, but alfo all 
Works of Faith, of Hope, of Fear*, all Works of 
Temperance, of Chaftity, of Refignation, of Cou- 
rage : In fhort, all Works of Piety whatfoever will 
then follow him into the Regions of the Blefled. 


A PraBicd Confid(^ation of the Vnhap^ Death of 
Wicked Men. 

OU R Saviour fays of Judas the Traitor, Tljat it 
had been good for him^ if he had never been born. 
It is Impoffible to Defcribe the Unhappinefs of that 
Man, who does not Purfue, and Attain that End, for 
which God Originally created him. For all other Crea- 
tures, whether Brutes^ or Plants^ or Inam7nate Beings', 
if they do not arrive to that Perfeftion,-kit which by 


The Art of lyymg 'isticUA t 19^ 

the Laws of Nature they might have attained to, they 
fufFer no Punifhment thereby upon the DifTolution 
their Beings. But Man, who was formed for the 
Higheft Happinefs, Inferiour only in Degree to the Hap. 
pinefsof God himfelf, if he Deviates from his Chief 
and Ultimate End, does not Ceafe to Be, but lives a 
Life much more Intolerable than Death it felfy inaf- 
much as it is far Better, not to Be at all, than to be 
Miftrable for ever. The Confequence therefore is un- 
deniable ^ That *tis the Higheft Inftance of Folly, foi^ 
any Man\ot to Profecnte his Chief Happinefs *, fiace 
this is the Great Dilemma of every Man Living, either 
to be eternally Happy, or Miferable. 

Now to give fome Ufeful lnftru£lions in ti Matter of 
fuch Importance, it will not be Improper^ in mj Opi- 
nion, to enlarge fomething on Thofe Words of St. Faul : 
2 Cor. iv. 17, 18. For our light AffliEtionj which is hut 
for a Moment^ worhth for m a far more Exceeding an^ 
Eternal Weight of Glory, While we look not at the Things 
that are feen^ hut at the Things which are mt feen *, For 
the Things which are feen are Temporal, but the Things 
which are not feen are Eternal, This Sublime Expreflion, 
thefe Apoftolical Words, to any Man who has a Spi- 
j.itual ReliQi of Heaven and Heavenly Things, are Ob- 
, vious and Plain*, to thofe who are wholly immerfed in 
Flefh audSenfe, and whofe Spiritual Appetites are De. 
praved, they are only Dream? and Fancies, and Unin- 
telligible Notions of Nothing. 

The Man of a Spiritual Taft, and Heavenly Con- 
templation, infers from thefe words *, That the AiTfic- 
tions he fuffers, and the Difficulties he ftrus^gles with 

C 4. ' i 

194 r/?^ ^J^^i '^■^^^^ 

in this Life, are but Light, and Short, tho* they fhould 
Continue for many Years*, and that thofe Difficulties 
and Affliflions are fo Acceptable to God, that they 
will Purchafe for him an Inexhauftible Treafure of Hap- 
pinefs and Glory. The Inference he draws from Hence 
is ^ That he ought not to avoid Afliiftions or Perfecu- 
tions by any finful Compliances, or Prefer his Tem- 
poral Advantage to his Expectations of Eternity and 
from hence, like a Divine Philofopher, he argues far- 
ther > That a Good Life is the only Means of fecuring 
his Chief Happinefs, and that the only wa^' to Live 
unto God, is to Die to the World. But that Man, on 
the other hand, who has Grofs and Carnal Notions of 
Things, and who will fcarce Believe any Thing, but 
what he can Ta^e^ or See^ inverts the Order of the A- 
poflles Words, and will tell you. That he ought to Re- 
pel Force by Force ; that the Principles of Juftice, and 
Self-Prefervation oblige him to Defend himfelf againft 
any Injury and Injuftice whatfoever ^ That none but 
Men of Bafe and Servile Principles will fubmit to fuch 
Severities^ and for thefe Reafons, that 'tis Lawful to 
Right himfelf *, tho' it be by Lying, Cheating, Mur- 
der, Breaking of God's Commandments, or any other 
unwarrantable Means whatfoever. This is the Common 
Language of this Sort of Men Why do ye Preach to me 
about Things that are Jnvifihlc ? My Vnderfla?jding is Free 
and Opeti'i and it Jhall never be fettered^ or puzxledy or 
blinded with Adyflery and Revelation, I neither fee nor 
feel the Torments of the Damned^ any more than I do the 
Happinefs of the Blejfed, But will you have the Hardin 
^efs to Deny what I fee with my Eyes, and am convinced 

The Art of Dying well. 195 

ef (U my Fingers Ends ? Will you have the Confidence to tell 
Tncy tho* I experimentally feel ity that there is nothing 
Grievous in Poverty and Sufferings ? This is not only the 
Opinion, but many times the Difcourfe of thofe Men, 
who are quite funk in Earth and Flefh. 

Now what I would Obferve, in the ifl Place, from 
thefe words, is ; The great Humility of the Jlpojlle^ in 
his Extenuation of the great Difficulties he underwent 
for the fake of Chrifi \ and his Thankfulnefs exprefTed 
in a Juft Acknowledgment of the Largenefs of the 
Reward ^jhe lhall receive for them. Our light Afflic- 
tion fays ne, which is but for a Moment^ Src. " There 
is no Comparifon between the Perfecutions I fufFer, 
and the Compenfation which will be made me.*» 
And yet 'tis \sery Certain, that St. Haul laboured very 
hard, and palTed thro* the fevereft Affliftions in the Ex. 
ercife of his Minifterial Office, for near Forty Years. 
For in the Hiftory of St. Stephens Martyrdom^ we read. 
That tho(e who ftoned him, laid down their Clothes at a 
yOung Marts Feet^ whofe Name was Saul ^ AH^s vii. 5^. 
In his Epiflle to Philemon^ it is Evident, that he con- 
tinued in his Obedience to Chnfij even to Old Age • 
ver, 9. So that the Beft Part of his Youth, his whole 
Middle Age^ and fome time of his Old Age were em- 
ployed in the Service of his^Lord and Mafter ^ and yet 
Behold the Lowlinefs of the Apojile ! All the Afflid:- 
ing Scene of Mifery and Perfecution which hepafs'd thro> 
from his Converfion to his Martyrdom^ was hut Lights 
and for a Moment, And this Alfertion, Comparatively 
fpeaking, is True ? tho' St. Paul's Sufferings, if Confi- 
dered by Themfelves^ as to the Timc^of them, were 
a long Continuance. 

Cc z But 

196 The Art of T>ytng well. 

But then, zd/y. The Great Humility of the j4pofile 

appei'-^; fu'^^'^^r. in affirming that his Afflictions were 
not only Momentary as to their Continuance, but that 
they were Light alfo, as to the Meafures and Degrees 
of them ^ whereas, in reality, there never was any One, 
our BlefTed Saviour excepted, who underwent a Larger 
Share of Mi{ery and Perfecution. In the Account given 
by himfdf of his own Sufferings, fpeaking of himfelf 
in Conjun6lion with his Brethren, he thus exprefTes 
himfelf : Even uyno this prtfent Hour we both hunger y and 
thirjl, and are ftakcd^ Ofid are buffeted^ and har: no cer' 
tain Dvoelling'Tlace *, and labour^ working with our own 
HiVtds : iBeing reviledy we blefs *, b&ing perfecutpd^ we 
fuffar it : Being defamed^ we intreat \ we are made as the 
Filth' of the Worldy and are the Of-fcour/ng of aU Things 
nmo this Day: i Cor- iw. li, 12, 13. In another Plac« 
he is more Particular in the Defcription of his Suffer- 
ings : In Labours more Abundant ^ in Stripes above Mea- 
fure^ in Prifons. more Frequent^ tn Deaths often. Of the 
Jews five tidies received I Forty Stripes fave one. Thrice 
was I beaten with Rods-, once was I fionedy thrice I fuf- 
fered Shipwreck a Night and a Day I hofue been tn thg 
Deep, la Journeying often % in Perils of Waters^ in Pe- 
T^ils^ of Robbersj in Perils by my own Countrymen^ in Pe- 
rils by the Heathen') in Perils in the City^ in Perils in the 
IVildemcfs^ in Perils in the Sea^ tn Perils among falfe 
Brethren* In Wearincfs and Painfulnefs^ m Watching^ 
often^ in Hunger and Thirft^ in Fafiings often^ in Cold 
and Nakedtiefs : 2 Cor. xxiii. 24, 25, 26, 27. Thefe are 
theAifliaions which St. Paul calls Light and Eafy^ 
and which the- very Sharp and Pungent in Themfelves, 
. yet the Confideratioa of {he Reward, and the Great 


The Art of T)jing z^jeU. i^y 

Love he had for his Mafler^ made them not only Tole- 
rable, but Delightful too. 

But, ^dlyy The next Thing Obfervable from the. 
words, is the Greatneft of the Reward ; u4 far more 
Exceeding and Eternal Weight of Glory. There is iome- 
thing in this Scripture, which can better be Conceived, 
than Expreffed-, an Infinite Abundant Inconceivable 
Meafure of Divine Happinefs. The Apoflle^ in Conde- 
Icention to the Capacities of Men, Compares the Re- 
wards of Eternity by the Similitude of Material Being 
vaftly ei^^jended ; For every Material Being is then faid 
to be Large, and Exceflive in its Quantity, when it is 
Confiderable in its Height, and Length, Bulky, Spa- 
cious, and confequently Heavy, and of great Weight ? 
lb that this Phrafe, A Far more Exceeding and Eternal 
Weight of Glory y does imply, in thei^ Place, Themoft 
fublime Station of Honour, furpafiing, in its Eminen- 
cy, all the inferior Pofts of Dignity and Preferment ia 
the World *, it denotes alfo the Unmeafurably Long Du- 
ration of this Honour, in Comparifon of which every 
Other Duration is of a ftiort Date ; and, Laftly^ it is 
not only Infinite in its Duration, nor is it a Fleet- 
ing Airy, Notional Pleafure*, but 'tis a Rational, a Man- 
ly, a Solid, and Subftantial Joy it is, as St. P^z^/ ex- 
prefles it, not only a Weighty but a Weight of Glory, 
The word Glory is a Term of Art in Tainting^ and as 
|t is here iVpplied to the Happinefs of the BlefTed ^ it 
fignifies the Amazing Brightnefs and Splendor, in which 
Men ftiall fliinc in their Glorified Bodies in the Kingdom 
of Heaven. 

But becaufc a fenfual Appetite has no Taft of thefe 
Heavenly Satisfaflions, inafmuch they are fpiritually DiP 


198 The Art of T)ymg well. 

cerned. St. Paul proceeds, in the' words following, to 
point out the great Difference there is in a fenfual and 
a fpiritual Life, and to fhew the Contrariety between 
them. The Appetites and Inclinations of worldly 
Men lead them into a furprizing Eagernefs for fuch 
Things as are Before them^ and look only at the Things 
-which are feen ^ whereas the fpiritually-minded Man, 
raifes his Profpeft higher j Believes, Contemplates, and 
Thirfts after more fublime Pleafures, and loob at the 
Things which are not feen. The Obje^s which thefe Men 
fix their AfFe^lions upon, the Ends they ptopofe to 
themfelves, and the Means whereby they purfue thofe 
Endsy are alfo widely Different. The fublime Obje^s 
which a fpiritual Mind entertains it felf with, are the 
Contemplation of God, the Profpeft of Immortality • 
the Pleafures it moftly Delights in, are thofe of Puri- 
ty, of Innocence, and Devotion. The ObjeEls^ on the 
other hand, which the fenfual Man is moftly enamoured 
with, are Grofs and Carnal ^ and, indeed fuch, as even 
the Brutes, in fome Inftances of them, enjoy in a 
much Higher Degree, than he does himfelf. The Plea- 
fures of the Former are Durable, and Lafting, always 
f refh and Satisfadlory, and never latiate in the Enjoy- 
ment of them whereas the Gratifications of the fen- 
fual Man end in Loathfomnefs and Surfeit, and always 
expire with the Objei^s of them. And as the ObjecHiS 
which the Spiritual and Senfual Man fix their Affe(n:ions 
upon are widely Different, fo are alfo the Ends^ which 
they each Propofe to themfelves. For the fenfual Man 
looks no farther than this World ^ all his Profpefts, 
Hopes, and Expeftations terminate within the Com- 
pafs of this Temporary Life \ Let us eat and dnnk^ for 


The Art of Tijwg "well. 1.9^ 

to-morrow we dle^ is the only Maxim he governs him- 
felf by *, whereas the Chief Happinefs the fpiritual Mm 
propofes to Himfelf, is not only to Pleafe himfelf, but 
alfo to Pleafe God not to Indulge his Appetites, batt(^ 
•Reftrain them, not to make the Earth the Center of 
his Wiflies, but to Enlarge his Views, and afpire after 
that Supreme Happinefs, which alone can fuisfy the 
Defires of an Immortal Soul. Nor are the Means 
■ which thefe Men make ufe of for the Attainment, of 
thefe Ends lefs Different, than are the Ends themfelves- 
The fenf^al Man fupports himfelf in his Luftand Intem- 
perance, by Extravagance and Excefs, by a great Pro- 
fufion of Time and Health, many times by Lying, by 
Flattery, and In juftice whereas the fpiritual Man pur- 
fues his End by fuc h Means^ are Safe, Honourable, and 
Religious j fuch as are equally Agreeable to his Confti" 
tution and his Happinefs, neither Derogatory to his Re- 
putation, nor Inconfiftent with his Intereft, but ever 
calculated to the Service of God, and the Peace of his 
own Mind. 

This then is the Only and True Reafon why fo Few 
underftand The Art of Dying well^ that they do not Con- 
template, or at leaft ferioufly Contemplate the Things 
that are Invifible and Eternal, but their Hearts and 
Affe£lions are wholly fixed upon Temporal Enjoyments, 
and their Thoughts taken up in the Confideration 
only of the Advautage, or Pleafure, or Beauty of the 
Things of Senfe ^ fo that the only Difference between 
a fenfual Man and a Beafl is This ^ That the Reafoi% 
why Brutes look no farther than fuch Objet^s as are 
vifible to them, is j that they are not endowed with 


700 The Art of 7)ying well. 

Reafon, f which alone exercifes it (elf in the Contem- 
plation of Heaven and Heavenly Things) and therefore 
canwt have any Profpeft or Notion of them. Thefen- 
fual Man, on the other hand, tho* capable of Exercifing 
both his Reafon and his Faith, will not Behold the Glo' 
ries of the Invifible State, and the Reverfions <A Futu- 
rity, but Thinks only ofi what is Pleafant and Agreeable 
at Prefent. 

There is no Thought which will more effe£^ually 
roufe Men from this Lethargy of Flefh and Senfe, than 
tne Confideration of the State of the Damnedff Thofc 
Unhappy Spirits are at laft Convinced with Terror, 
and with Judgment (tho* it is now too late to confider 
it) That all the Temporal Glory of this World, the 
Riches, the Honours, the Pleafures of this Tranfitory 
Life are paft and gone, and That they are now Dread- 
iuiiy fucceeded by an Eternity of Torment. They fee 
and feel the Miferable Exchange they have made^ an 
immortal Spirit Damned, for a Short-lived Pleafure. 
Cro^\ns, and Scepters, and Kingdoms loft; only to 
gratify a Brutifh Luft, or anUnreafonablePaffion. The 
Wife Man J with great Eloquence, defcribes the Lan- 
guage of thefe Men ; which, tho of no Advantage to 
tricxii, yet to us they are a ufeful Lefture of Morality, 
and the Application of them may be of confiderable 
Service to us: iVe have erred from the way of Fatth^ fay 
they, a?7d the Light of Righteoufnefs hath not fhined unt^ 
ns^ and the Sun of Righteoufnefs rcfe not upon us. We 
wearied our felves in the way of Wickednefs and Be- 
ftrullion : The way of the Lord we have not known 
What Kiath Pride profited U6 ? Or what Good have Riches- 


The Art of ^ying isDelL loi 

"with our Vaunting brought m ? All tho fe things are paffed 
away like a Shadow, and as a Pcji that hafted by and as 
a Ship th it pajfeth over the Waves of the Water^ whichy 
when it is gone by, the Trace thereof cannj)t be found ; 
neither the Path-way of the Keel, in the Waves or, as 
'when a Bird hath flown thro' the Alr^ there is no Token of 
' her way to be found *, but the light Air being beaten with 
the Stroke of her Wings ^ and parted with the violent Noife 
,and Amotion of them^ is paffed thro^ ond therein after- 
wards no Sign where fl^e went^ is to be found. Wifdom 
V. 6, 7, r^, 9, 10, II. In thefe Words it is Obvious to 
Obferve *, That the fenfual Man, in a Future State, will 
Condemn himfelf, in the ifi Place, That by perfuing 
with Eagernefs the Uncertain Pleafures of this World, 
he has forfeited his Title to more Durable and .Lading 
Delights, idly^ That he is wlioHy Uncarpable for ever 
to Recover his loft Happinefs. And, ^dly^ That the 
Remembrance of his Imprudence, in this Rerpe(n:, will 
be a Part ' of his Punifhment to all Ages. Nay^ if a 
Man confiders only the Prefent State and Order of 
Things, he will find that the fpiritually-mirided Man, 
does not only enjoy his Share of Temporal Felicity^ 
with more Satkfaftion, and a better Tajfit^, b«t does 
"really find more Pieafure in tile Contempt, or Lofs of 
all worldly Pleafures, than the fenfual Man. does , ia the 
Enjoyment of them. /iC U 

It may with great Reafon be affirmed, in the Jj^ 
Place, that the fpiritually-minded Man enjoys his Share 
of Tempral Felicity with moKe Satisfaction, and a Bet- 
ter Taft, tfian the fenfual Man. For Experience will 
convince any Man, that a Life of Intemperance and Ex- 
ceffive pieafure does not only fill the Body with grofs 

Dd Humours, 

io7 The Art of 7)ymg 'well. 

Humours., but does alfo clog and incumber the Spirits,' 
and by that means Unqualifies them for an Agreeable 
Senfation of thofe Delights, which are Peculiar to him 
as a Man. There is a Regular State of Health, and a 
True Dilpofition of the Senfitive Powers^ which are al- 
ways look*d upon as neceflary for a True Perception of 
all fenfual Pleafure. Now that Man enjoys thefe Quali- 
fications in the Higheft Degree, who governs himfelf 
by the Rules of Temperance, and keeps the Body in 
due Subje^lion to the Soul \ for his Moderation pre- 
vents all that Surfeiting and Loathlbmneft whkh ufually 
follow a Luxurious way of Life *, and Inftru£fe him far- 
ther, that To ufe thU Worlds fb as not to ahufe is the 
Only Pleafure both of a Wife Man, and a Chriftian. 

But, idlyy The fplrituilly-minded Man does really 
perceive more Pleafure in the Contempt, or Lofs, or 
Want of all Temporal Felicity, than the fenfual Man 
does in the Enjoyment of it. This indeed, at firft 
fight, looks like a Paradox, and might, widi fome Rea- 
fon, be thought fo, had it not been frequently con- 
firmed by the Aflurtnces of Pious and Good Men. 
See with what a holy Triumph St. Paul rejoices in the 
midft of all his Wants and Sufferings : / am FiWd jpith 
Comfort^ fays he, / affi Exceeding joyful in all our Tribu- 
lation *, 2 Cor. vii. 4. This Joy of the Apoftle was Spi- 
ritual and Divine, as much above all Senfual Delights, 
as the Soul is of a Finer Make and Conftitution than the 
Body. St. AthanafiM^ in the Life of St. Anthony^ re- 
[ates of Hi^ii, That he never feem'd the leajt to he Con- 
cern 4 at the Lofs of all that he had. This Obfervation is 
no lefs True of all the Primitive Chriftians, and of all 
Good Men whatfoever *, who tho' th,ey live in a Con- 



The Art of 7)ywg well. ao^ 

tinual State of Want, and exerdfe thenfifclves in the ' 
Pafflve and moft Afflifting Duties of Religion, yet by 
Raifing their Thoughts and Expectations above the 
World, and Fortifying themfelves with a Senfe of their 
own Innocence, they dare bid Defiance even to Danger 
and Death. This therefore is worthy the Con fideration 
of every Good Chriftian, That whofoever lhall ufe any 
Unjuft Means either to Procure, or Keep, or Increafe 
his Things Temporal^ (hall, by fo doing, not only forfeit 
his Right to the Things Eternal^ but alfo will lofe that 
Delight ar^ Comfort with vs^hich a fpiritual Lile does 
continually abound. 

Confidcr therefore, O Man ! whofoever Thou art. 
That Thou art now, it may be, in a full Enjoyment 
of Health Is it not therefore more Reafonable, is it 
not alfo more Religious to employ that Time in the 
Service of God, wherein thy Paffions are Generally 
moft Warm, thy Affeftions moft Immoderate, and the 
Temptations of Sen(e have the ftrongeft Influence upon 
Thee ? Where's the Virtue of Forgiving an Enemy, 
when thou haft not Strength to Refift him Where's 
thy Goodnefs in withdrawing thy AfTeftions from the 
World, when Thou art going out of it ? Where's thy 
Courage in Refifting Temptations, when Thou haft no 
Relifh of them ? Refleft with thy felf, that thofe Du- 
ties are more Acceptable to God, and more Availeable 
to thy Salvation, which are Free and Voluntary, than 
fuch as proceed from Neceflity and Compulfion ; Thefe 
are generally the EfFe£ls only of a fervile Fear, and are 
performed more out of a Principle of Intereft to thy 
(elf, than any Principle of Love and Obedience to 
God. Look back to the Great Examples of Antient 

D d 2 Times, 

The Art of7)jing well. 

TTiuies, and fee before thee the Devout Patterns of the 
PrefentAge, and Learn to be Wife betimes. If thy 
Friend fhould advife thee in thy Journey, that thoa 
art out of thy way, and that the Path thou hafl taken 
would lead to a Precipice, or an Ambufcade with 
what Thankfulnefs wouldft thou receive his Counfel, and 
Return .with Speed intQ the Right way ? Is not thy 
Soul Preferable to thy Body? The Care therefore of thy 
Soul ought to rife in Proportion to the Value of it, 
and the great Danger it is in of being Loft for ever. 

But to Reprefent the Death of Wicked Men with 
more Advantage to tlie Living, thefe Three ^nfidera- 
tions will be of Great Service. The ifi is. That the 
the Death of the fenfual Man is made very Uncomfor- 
table, by the fad Remembrance of his Paft Pleafures. 
2%, That 'tis made more .Uncomfortable by the Gall- 
ing Refiiiflions of his own Confcience : As it is, in the 
^dxnd Z.^;? Place, moft of all Imbittered with the Dif- 
mal A-pprehenfions of a Future State. 

The Death of the S^nfual Man, in the jjl Place, is 
made very Uncomfortable by the fad Remembrance of 
kis Paft Pleafures. Thofe Delights, which lately af 
forded him the Higheft iSatisfa^flion in the Enjoyment 
of them do now afford him the moft Grievous Re- 
flexion, that he can enjoy them no more. He recol- 
jefts with Pain his former Enjoyment, and 'rts now a 
Part of his Mifery what he once efteemed his Greateft 
Happinefs. As the World, f^r fome time, has en- 
gro fled his Thoughts, and the whole Srream ofhisAf- 
fe£liqns has run in the fame Channel, it is Now almoft 
jmpofiible to Divert tliek Courfe, fo that his Inclina- 
tions to Pleafiire do ftill continue, tho* his want of 


The Art of T)jmg ^isueU. 105 

Health does wholly Unqualify him for the Senfation of 
it. Unhappy Man that he is ! Obliged to Covet .what 
he cant Enjoy *, and which, if he could Enjoy, would - 
only enhance his Future Punifhment. To fee H.ippi- 
nefs, and not to Enjoy it, is One Ingredient of the Mi- 
fery of the Damned. The Cafe of the Senfual Man is 
much the fame with that of Dives \ He feeth Abraham 
afar off^ and Lazarus in his Bofom \ but there is a great 
Giilph fixed ^ his Indifpofition intercepts the Pleafure, 
and his Wifhes only Reach to the Enjoyment. 

But, idly^ The Death of the Senfual Man is made 
more Uncomfortable, by the Galling R.ef]e<flions of his 
own Guilty Mind ; For not only the Confideration that 
he can enjoy his Pleafures no longer^ but alfo that he 
has already Enjoyed them too much y will be Full of Bit- 
ternefs to him. The Common Amufements of Wine 
and Good Company, whereby he once Diverted his 
Thoughts, and lulled his Confcience Afleep, have now 
forfakenhim, and in fpightofall the Arts and Evafions, 
he makes ufe of it now raifes its Voice, and calls Aloud 

. for Vengeance. The Hurry and Bufinefs of the World, 
which fonietimes threw him into a Senflefs and Incon- 
fiderate State, is All over, and he has Now time only 
to Behold his Vices with Trembling and Remorfe. 
The feeming Diftance of Eternity, and the Flourifhing 
State of Health he has fo long enjoyed \ (the fpecious 

. Arguments whereby the Senfual Man Deceives himfelf,) 
'are Now feverely Confuted, and his own Convi^lions 

* aflure him, tho* too late, that 'tis III trufting to a 
Death-Bed Repentance. 

But, idly^ That which does moftly Imbittcr the 
Death of the iSenfual Man, is the Difmal Apprehenfioi 


io6 The Art of T)yhig well. 

of a Future State. When he Refle£ls upon what he 
has Done, and Confiders what he is like to Suffer 9 
when he Obfervcs That Ail Behind hirii is Guilt, and 
that All Before him is Deftru^ion, what Damps and 
Shiverings do then lhake his Affrighted Mind ? How 
does he Tremble, and look Pale at the Confideration 
of a Future Judgment ? The near Approach of Death 
prefents him with a furprifiing Scene of Fears a^id Dan- 
gers*, of fuch Fears as he cannot overcojyv:, of fuch 
Dangers as he can by no means avoid, ana which in- 
deed he is forced to Believe, tho' he is never ^ Unwil- 
ling to Believe them. For the Truth of it is, That no 
Man has fo True a Profpe^l of another World, as he 
that is going out of This *, for the Cares and Concerns 
of Life are apt to engage the Thoughts of the Befl Men 
too far, much more the Defires of thofe, who have 
fixed their Wearts upon the Delights of it. But when 
the Relifh of thefe worldly Enjoyments is taken off by 
Weaknefs and Infirmity, the Soul of Man, always an 
Aflive and Bufy Principle, is wholly Converfant ^for 
be has no other Thought to Converfe with; in the 
Thoughts of a Future State. Bat what Satisfaction, ac- 
cording to the befl Principles of Reafonand Revelation 
can fach a Confidention afford the Senfual Man ? The 
Principles of Natural Reafon convince him. That Vir- 
tue only entitles him to a Reward, and that there is a 
.Natural Connexion between Sin and Punifhmenf, and 
Revelation affarcs him him how great this Pun ifhment . 
is \ and his own Con fcience falls in with the Evidence 
of Scripture^ and convinces him, that this Punifhment 
waits him in another World. Go^ ye Curfedy into Ever- 
l^riiii ErCf prepared for the Devil and his Angel Sy is 


The Art of^ying wdl. loj 

the Dreadful Sentence which his own Convi£lion applies 
to himfelf. But what Thought can Reach, or what 
Tongue can exprefs the Terrors that afflict his Soulf 
The Torments of the Damned, no lefs than the Hap- 
pinefs of the BlefTed, are Inconceivable ; and the (ad 
and fure Expectation of Punifhment, is but one Re- 
move from the Punifhment it felf. 

As the Principal Reafon why Men live fenrual!/, and 
therefore die miferably is the Want of true Chriftian 
Courage and Refolution, in tamely giving way to the 
Allurements of Pleafure, and a great Wiint of Faith, 
in not erflarging their Profpeft to Things that arelnvifi- 
ble J the only way for a Man to adl fuitably to the 
-Dignity of Human Nature, and the Honour of the 
Chriftian Profellion, is to Look beyond the Grave, to 
^Believe what he cannot Coiwprehend, and to Refift 
with Vigour the Force and Power of his fpiritual Ene- 
mies : For as his Courage and Refblution will carry 
Eim thro* all. the Temptations of Fleih and Senfe in 
this World, fo will his Faith lead him into another > 
The One will enable him to be Stedfafi, Vnmoveahley 
and Always Abounding in the Work of the Lord'^ the 
Other Affuring him, That his Labour fljall not be in vain 
in the Lord \ I Cor. xv. 58. The Chriftian Religion is 
a State of Warfare, Jefm Chrifi himfelf is called the 
Captain of his Salvatisn-y the Enemies he Contends with 
^are the Worlds the Flejh^ and the Devil^ the Armour he 
is exhorted to put on^ is the Breafl-plate of Righteoufnefsj 
the Sword of the Spirit^ and the Shield of Faith > and 
Heaven it felf is the Reward, when he Fights and Over- 
comes. What is there in all thefe Expre (lions that feerps 
to favour and countenance an Idle and Unadive Life ? 


^2o8 The An oj T>ytng <weU. 

What ratlier, that does not alarm the whole Man, and 
fummon his Braved Refolutions, in fighting the goad 
Fight of Faith ? This is the ViElory that triumphs not 
cnly over the Worlds but Death alfo. If a Man go- 
verns himfelf by a Firm Belief of Things Eternal, the 
Pa (live Duties of Chriftianity will never Terrify and 
Affright him-, he will bring his Flefhly Appetites in 
Subjedlion to Reafon and Faith, which at laft fhall be 
fwallowcd up in Fifion and Enjoyment. 


The Conclusion of the Whole or, the Sum and Suhfimce 
of the Art of Dying well Con fiderd, and Ai^lfd. 

AS Religion is generally looked upon as a PraElical 
Science.) and the Truths of it are fupported by 
Clear and Evident Principles, I think I may be fairly 
allowed to Argue from fuch Principles in the following 
manner : The Pleafures and AffliU:ions of this Prefent 
Life are Light and Momentary the Delights and Suffer- 
ings of a Future State are Great and Infinite. The only 
. inference, which by the Rules of Divine Philofophy^ a 
Chriftian can draw from thefe Premifes, is, That he 
ought to h€t in Proportion to the Value of Things 
c^.nd to determine his Choice accordingly. A ihort 
Af?AEi\on is to be undergone with Patience in this 
World, for the Attainment of an endlefs Pleafure. It 
is much Better for him to forego a Tranfitory Pleafure 
ia this Life, than to Forfeit an Infinity of Happinefs 
in the Next. The AfEictions here are Rewarded 
with Future Glory, and all Worldly Delights do gene: 


The Art of Dying well, ^lo^ 

rally end in Eternal Punifhment, the Former are the; 
moft Eligible of the Two: And that there is as.mudi 
Difference between the Pleafures and Sufferings of this 
and the next Life, as there is between Time and Eter- 
nity. Thefe are the Divine Maxims^ by which that 
Good Man governs himfelf who Contemplates his Lat- 
ter End. 

To learn therefore the Art of Dying wclij with more 
Eafe, and with more Difpatch^ the beft way is not la 
much to apply himfelf to Books^ and Difcourfes on the 
SuhjeEi of Mortality, and the Uncertainty of Humart 
Life, tho' ^fuch Inftruclions be of great Ufe and Advan- 
tage to hijii j but Frequently, and with great Intenfnefs 
of Thought to confider the Difference there is between 
Time and Eternity, and the great Difproportion there is 
between the Pleafures of Senfe^ and thofe of Religion ^ 
and this let him do, not to make himfelf more Ingeni- 
ous, but more Holy 5 not to Increafe his Knowledge^ 
but to Improve his Virtue. And to Eftablifh himfelf 
more Firmly in the Principles of Holy Living, let him 
Refie£l alfo on the Examples of thofe who are now 
Dead*, whether of Perfons who have been Eminent for 
Holinefs, and have therefore Dy'd in a State of Grace 
and Favour with God ^ or of fuch who have lived Wick- 
edly, and have therefore Dy'd under the faddeft Ap- 
prehenfions of Futurity, and a Reafonable Fear of the 
Divine Difpleafure. To eafe my Reader of the Trouble 
of Searching for any Examples, I fhall Produce from 
Revelation Three very Renlarkeable Inftances of his 
Kind', fuch as if ducly Confidered cannot fail to have 
the ftrongeft Influence upon the Minds and Confciences 
of Men. The Firft^ I fball - mention is that q{ Puhlick 

E e Perfo/2Sy 

•2 1 o The Art of well. 

Terfo?7s^ fuch who were Advanced to the Higheft Poft of 
Government. The Secondj is what Relates to Lay Per- 
fons Confider'd in their Private Capacity. The Third^ is 
the Example of fuch as were Mimfiers md Stewards of 
the Myfteries of God. 

The Flrfl Example is : That of Saul and David. Saulj 
the firft King of the Jews^ when in a Private Capacity, 
and low Circumftances, was a Man of fo Remarkeable 
a Piety, that he was fcarce exceeded by any. Upon his 
Advancement to the Regal Authority, he changed his 
Life with his Fortune, and Degenerated into a Profligate 
Sinner. He Perfecuted Innocent Davidj «ven unto 
Death*, and that for no other reafon, but becaufe he 
was Jealous that he would Succeed him in his Govern- 
ment. After a Reign of Twenty Years, he was Slain 
in Battle, and Dy'd a Miferable Death. David on the 
other hand, a Holy and a Juft Man , being Dedar'd 
King in his Room, Governed that People with equal 
Piety and Prudence, for the fpace of Fourty Years*, and 
after he had pafled through a great Variety of Perfecu- 
tion, full of Years and Virtues, at laft Dy'd in Peace, 
and in the Favour of God. 

Let us now make the Comparifon, between the Com- 
forts and the Sufferings of thefe two Honourable Prin- 
ces, and fee, which of them had Learnt the Art of 
Holy Living and Dying, to the beft Advantage. The 
Pleafure of Governing, a Pleafure which the Ambition 
of Men does moftly AfFeft, was in a great meafure aba- 
ted, by that Inveteracy where with he Perfecuted Da-- 
vid. This Mixture of Malice, and Pleafure was all he 
could pretend to, while he Lived in this World. What 
Succeeded*, was all Pain without any Mixture of De- 
light ; 

The Art of Dying ^ell. 1 1 1 

light*, Endlefs, and Excefllve Torment without any 
Hopes of Redrefs. His Soul, the more Noble Part of 
him, has now for Two Thouiand Years, and upwards, 
layn under the moft Inexpreffible Pains*, Pains that are 
Intolerable for a Moment, and yet fuch as muft be born 
to all Eternity. The Cafe of Bavli is far otherwife? 
in the Gourfe of a Life of Seventy Years, tho' his Suf- 
ferings were Great, and his Affliftions Many, yet the 
Refrefhments of Confcience, and his Spiritual Compla- 
centies fortify'd his mind amidft all his Difficulties *, of 
which he ^has Cheerfully aflur'd us in his Tfalms of 
Praife and Thankfgiving. A Life fo Regular, fo Uniform 
as this, was at laft Crbwn'd with an Unmeafureable 
Duration of Happinefs, with the Blefled Society of 
Angels and God, and the Delightful Profpeft of a Blef- 
fed Eternity to come. 

The Reader may learn from hence, that neither the 
Greatnefs, nor Goodnels, nor Wickednefs of Men can 
fecure them from the Grave *, That no Man is fo High as 
to be above giving an Account to God of all his Aftions, 
and That it is worth while for Men in the moft Eminent 
Stations to Live well, only that they may Dye fo. For 
what Comparilbn is there between a Tranfient Pleafure, 
and an Eternal Punilhment ? Who would wifli to enjoy 
the moft Pure Unmingled Delights, without the leaft 
Interruption, for the whole Compafs of Life, provided 
nothing was to follow , but Vnquenchable Fire ? If 
a Man duly confiders the Eternity of Hell-Torments, 
the Amazing Thought is fufficient to Soften the moft 
Obdurate Heart, and melt it down into Contrition and 
Repentance *, for altho* a Confideration of the Joys of 
Heaven, and of the Love andGoodnefs of God to Man- 

E e 2 kind, 

Ill The Art of ^ywg well. 

kind, may fometimes engage Men in a Filial Obedi- - 
ence to him yet there is nothing which ftrikes fo 
Powerfully upon the Confcience of a Wealthy and Ho- 
nourable Sinner, who has greater Power, and lays un- 
der greater Temptations to do Evil, as the Terrour of 
Damnation. Knowing therefore this Terrour of the Lordj 
I would Perfwade Men\ 1 would Perfwade them with 
j^ll the Force of Divine Eloquence to look beyond the 
Grave, to, the laft IlTue and Gonfequence of Things ^ 
for this Reafon I would Advife,- 1 would Entreat, I 
would Befeech them to be Happy. How often does 
God warn them by the Exemplary of Livel' of Good 
Men, and , by the Punifhment of the Wicked? How 
does he Call upon them by Sicknefs and Difeafes, by 
Graves and Monuments, .by, Death and Judgment, by 
Heaven and Hell, to mind the Things that belong to their 
Veace^ before they are hid from their Eyes. 

The next Example I. ihall Mention is: That of the 
Rich Many, md Laz.arus'^ which Relates to every Man 
in his Private Capacity, and which indeed - ag it is the 
Cafe of aJl the Lalty^ from the Creation either in this or 
the next World. The Rich Man j tho' his Pleafures 
w^ere hnt Short, continually Pamper'd himfelf with 
high feeding, and Lived up to the height of Luxury and 
Eafe. He fpared no Experices in his Treats, and En- 
tertainments, and made as great a Figure in Drels 
and Equipage as poflible. He was clothed in Purple y 
and fine Linn^ny and fared Sumptuoufly every J)^y. The 
Beggar was as Remarkable for his Poverty, as the Other 
v^as for his Abundance. His Body was doubly Aifflidled 
v^^ith Pain and Hunger, his Soul almoft quite funk 
with the Fears pf Starving, and all the Relief he had 


The Art of ^ytng well. a 1 5 

was only from the Dogs, tho' more ComjlafTionate thari 
their Mafter. But fee the furprizing Change, which 
Death makes in the Conditions of Men ! The Rich 
Man Dies and Defcends, with ali hi$ Vices about him, 
into Hell *, Laz.arus alfo Dies ^ but is carryed by the 
Angels into Abraham^ 'hofom. The Rich Man^ after a 
Short Life of Eafe and Pleafure, entred into a State 
of Eternal Punifliment ^ the Pious and Patient Laz^arns^ 
after a Jhort Affli^ion -which was hut for a Moment^ does 
now Enjoy a far more exceeding-, and Eternal Weight of 
Glory, The Opinion we conceive of the Happinefs of 
others is generally Falfe. We are apt to Form a Judg* 
nient of the Happinefs of Men in this World, from a 
Confideration of the Honours, or Riches, or Pleafures 
they Enjoy, or the Favour and Countenance of This, 
or That great Man ^ whereas we ought rather to take an 
Eftimate of them from their Virtues, their Moral Ac^ 
compliftiments, and thofe Excellent Difpofitions of Soul, 
which alone Qualify them for the Enjoyment of Hea^ 
venly- Glory. It is not Improbable, that if we, who 
are now Alive, had lived in the time of thefe Men, that 
nioft, if not all of us, had over-looked the Profped of 
a Future State, and rather defired the Happinefs of tkc 
One, than the Miferable Poverty of the others but novr 
we {ee, and are Convinced, that the Condition of thele 
Men is quite Reverfed-, That Luxury and Intemperance, 
|S now receiving its Punilhment in the Regions of De- 
■ j({>air, whilft Afflifted Piety Exalts its head with Tri- 
'uiiiph in the Heavenly Jerufalem. We have now Dif- 
ferent Views of Things, and can Diftinguifh between 
the Means which lead to our Happinefs, and fuch as 
really Prevent it. Why therefore in this time of Pro- 

114- The Art of T>ywg "well. 

bation , when we have a Convenient Opportunity to 
make the heft Choice When vs'e Obferve from the Re- 
wards, and Panifhments of others, what our own Con- 
dition is like to be*, I fay why do not thefe Examples 
Excite us a Holy Emulation of attaining to thofe Re- 
wards which feme of them do now Enjoy, and a Reli- 
gious Dread of thofe Punifhments which others do now 
SolFer? I do not hereby Perfwade Men to a Moapifh 
Aufterity, and an Entire Averfion to fuch Things, as 
God has been pleafed to Create for the ufe of Man. 
The Innocent Enjoyments of Life do in fome Refpedls qua- 
lify Men for the Offices of Chriftianity ^ and there is no 
inconfiftency between Religion and Affluence. Nay. 
it is very certain, that a Man is more Capable, by a 
Large Income, and a Confiderable Eftate, to be more 
Vihfal and Beneficent to Mankind, than he would 
©therwife be. Bat -it is One Thing for a Rich Man 
to be Charitable, and another to be Luxurious*, The 
Great Examples of j4hraham^ of David^ of Job are a 
SuflTcient Dire£lion to a Rich Man, in the Management 
of a Large Fortune. Thefe Holy Men amidft all their 
Abundance, retained only a Competency for Themfelves : 
Nay, indeed they retrenched Themfelves, that thej^ 
might have to give to the Neceflities of others*, and 
preferved at the fame time their Innocence, and tKejr 
Charity too. ^ \ 

The Confideration of this Example on the other Hand, 
ought to be aOfeAtConfolation to Poor Men *, viz.. That 
their Poverty itfelf is no ways Criminal ^ Nay, that li is 
in many refpe^ls a Security to them againft thole Tempta- 
tions, to which the Rich are moll expofed. Itlnftru(f1:s 
them farther that the Happinefs of Men is not to be 


The Art of Trying well. 115 

Meafured by any Outward Circumftances of Life and 
Fortune in this World, That they have as Good a Tide 
to a more Lafting Inheritance as the Rich Man has^ 
And Lafilyy That the Affliftions which they now Suffer, 
if they bear them with Patience and Refignation, will 
at laft be Rewarded with Fullnefs of Joy. In ftiort this 
Example both of the Rich Man^ and the Be^ar^ and 
the Different State of Rewards and Punifhnients they 
now are in, will Convince all Mankind of this Impor- 
tant Truth \ That only the Righteous Man can Bye Hap^ 
pily* The Natural Fears of Death, to which we are all 
Subje£l, jhe Impartial Voice of our own Conlciences, 
and the Teftimony of the Holy Scripture do Conftantly 
repeat the Evidence of it upon our Minds. What then 
can be the Reafon, That Men fliould thus ad againft 
Light and Convi£lion ? Why indeed the Principal Rea- 
(bn is^ That the Contemplation of Death is too Melan- 
choly a Thought*, it is apt to Rouze the Confcience 
alittle, to Difturb them in their Pleafures , and to 
Sour the Enjoyments of Life, Thcfe, it is to be feared," 
are generally the Thoughts of Rich Men, who are apt 
to Flatter Themfelves, by reafon of their Superiour 
Fortune, That God has Indulged them in a Greater 
Latitude of Life than other Men*, And therefore that 
they are not fo ftridly tyed up to the Obligations of 
Religion and Confcience. But thefe Men would do weiji 
to Confider, T hat no Difference in the Outward Circum- 
ftances of Life can Vacate the Obligations of Duty^ 
And that as they are entrufted by Providence, with 
Great Powers of doing good, than other Men, a greater 
Improvement of thofe Talents which they have Re- 
ceived, is Expeded from them. 

' The 

II 6 The Art of 7)ymg well. 

The Laft Example of the Lives and Deaths of Good 
and Bad Men, which I fhall now Produce is That of 
Judas md Matthias, which relates wholly to the Clergy 
And the Confideration of it, may be great Ufe, and Ad- 
vantage to them. The Cafe of Judas was Milerable be- 
yond expreffion, infomuch That he was neither Happy 
in This^ nor in the other World. Tis true indeed 
that for the fpace of Three Years he continued in a 
Firm Obedience to his Lord and Mafter *, but his Cove- 
toufiiefs at laft prevailing over his Duty, he Bafely be- 
trayed him. But what was the Confequence of this 
Treachery and Rebellion? The Devil who had Prompt- 
ed him to fo Flagrant a Wickednefs, Punifhes him for it. 
The Execrable Tray tor falls into Defpair, his Guilt 
obliges him to Return the Money he had received for 
his Treafon ^ And his Guilt, and his Defpair together 
make him his own Executioner ^ fo that his Villainy at 
laft Concluded with the Lofs of this Temporal Life, 
and the Punifhment of Eternal Death. This was the 
Reafbn why our Blefled Saviour Pronounced that Dread- 
ful Sentence upon him^ Tloat it had been Good for him-t 
if he had not been Born : Matt. 26. 24. The Behaviour 
of the Good Matthias^ who fucceeded him in his Apo- 
filefhip, was far Different. His Coifrage was Equal to 
his Virtue, and neither the Profpeft of Gain, noir the 
Fear of Danger, could draw him from a Steady Fideli. 
ty to his Lord. For tho* he laboured much in the Mini- 
ftry, and fuffered hard in the Difcharge of it, yet as 
his Conftancy and Refolution conquered all Difficulties, 
he now enjoys that Supreme Happinefs, the Belief of 
which fupported him under all the Calamities of this 
J,ife \ An^i Reigns Triumphantly mihChrift in Heaven, 


The Art of Dying well. a i y 

whom he Served Faithfully upon Earth. The Confider- 
ation of Thefe Examples in the Ldjl place, will be of 
Great Service to the Clergy in Engaging them to Live 
up to the Dignity of their Mmifierldl Office^ That fo 
they may Dye in the Fear and Favour of God. 

And in Order to this*, I would Exhort and Perfwade 
them in the Flrfi place, to Abftra^ themfelves, as much 
as Poffible,from tdo Great a Familiarity with the Worlds 
and to Renounce as far as Human neceffity will give them 
leave, all Covetous Defires of the Riches, Pleafures, Ho- 
nours, and Preferments of it. A Good Clergyman is 
commanSed to have no other Inheritance, Compara-^ 
tively Speaking^ but God only. O the Height and 
Eminency of Sacredotal Perfeci:ion ! Which Dies to the 
World, that it may Live unto God^ which Difclaims 
all Right to the Creatures, that fo it may entirely Pof- 
fefs the Infinite Creatour, and be PofifeiTed by Him. 
This is the Senfe of that Expreffion of the Tfalmiji^ 
7 he Lord Htmfelf is the Portion of mine Inheritance^ and 
of my Cup\ The meaning of which words is not*. That 
God (hall be one Part of his Inheritance, and ths 
World another-, but This ^ That as he has Confecrated 
himfelf by his Ordination to the Service of God, What- 
foever Pleafure or Profit the World may Flatter, him 
with, he may enjoy them in God only, who is the 
Sufficiency of all Things. Whatfoever Worldly Advan- 
tages he has Renounced, or Difpifed, or has given to 
the Poor, Thou God haft carefully Layed up for him,and 
in thy own good time wilt Reftore it to him*, not in 
Things Corruptible, but in Thyfelf, who art the Inex- 
hauftible Fountain of all Good : This alfo is the Opinion 
of St. Ber-nard^ixi his Lives pf the Clergy. A Clerg^imany 

F f fays 

11 8 The An oj Dying well. 

Ays he, whofervesthe Church of Chriji, ought to Confider 
from whence his Name is Derived^ and to Anfwer the 
Dignity of his Charalier, They are therefore called Clergy, 
meny becaufe They are of the Inheritance of the Lord^ or 
becaufe the Lord is Their Inheritance. Now he who In-- 
herits the Lord^ or whom the Lord Inherits, ought to Be- 
have himfelf in fo Devout a Manner^ as equally to Pofefs 
and be Foffeffed by him. 

The next Duty of a Good Minifier of Jefus Chrift 
in order to a Happy Death, is, To Live an Innocent 
and Ufeful Life *, or in St. Paul's words \ To put on the 
new Man'^ which after God is Created in Righp^oufnefs^ 
and true Holinefs. Eph. 4. 24. It is not only Necef- 
fary for him, to Renounce the World, but alfb to Live 
Above it. To put on the New Man is a Phrafe ufed by 
the Apoflle to Signify our Imitation of Chrift^ in Oppo- 
fition to another Exprefion in Scripture of Putting offtht 
the Old Man ^ that is, Adam^ who TranfgrefTed, and 
therefore Fell. To be Created in Right eoufnefs and true 
Holinefs^ is not only to live up to the Principles of 
Juftice, and Moral Honefty ^ but alfo to Excel in the 
Higheft Perfeftion of Chriftian Obedience, and to Con- 
form himfelf, as near as he can, to the Image of his 
Mafter, Who did no Sin^ neither was any guile found in 
his Mouth I Pet. 2. 22. 

The Laft Duty of a Good Minifter of Jefus Chrifi 
in Order to a Happy Death, is*, To Behave himfelf in 
all., the Offices of his Holy Profeflion, not only with 
Decehce and Gravity ^ but alfo with Diligence and De- 
votion, and a Religious Fervour of Mind. I (hall only 
mention at prefent the Holy Euchanfl^ as being the mod 
Venerable O^ce of the Chriftian. Religion j Is it there- 

The Art of Tfjing well. a 1 9 

fore to be Performed in a Cold, a Carelefs, Unatten- 
tive Manner? The Immaculate Lamb of God is there 
Spiritually offered*, with what Angelical Purity, with 
what Humble Reverence therefore ought the Holy Sacrl- 
ficer to be Cloathed, who Prefents the Offering? See 
what Awful Sentiments St. Chrlfojlom^ in his Book of 
the Trtefihood had of the Solemnity of this Feafi ! In the 
time of Celehrationj fays he, The Angels themfdves Ac-^ 
company the Prieft:^ the Whole Order of the Heavenly Po- 
rvers are in Extacy^ and the Altar is Filled with the Praif- 
€s of the H^eavenly Hoji. St. Gregory^ no lefs Seraphical- 
ly ExprefTes himfelf to the fame Purpofe. What Chrijliany 
lays he, can douht^ whether the Heavens open-, in the Con- 
fecration of the Element Sy at the V lice of the Prieji ? Whe^ 
ther the tAngelw Chour do not attend the Service ? Nayy 
Whether Heaven and Earthy Things Vifihle and Jnvifihle 
are not United together^ at that time^ in Harmony and 
Traifef What ! Shall Thrones, and Dominions, Prin- 
cipalities, and Powers Appear in Honour of this Sacri- 
fice, and (hall he who Officiates demean himfelf with 
Indifference, and Indevotion ? Shall he Hurry over the 
Holy Of^ce of the Church in a Thoughtlefs Inconfide- 
rate Manner ? This is to Mock God, to bring a Con- 
tempt on Holy Things, and to give occafion to Licen- 
tious Men to Blafpheme. 

This therefore, upon the whole, is the moft Religi- 
ous Exercife of F,.eafon in all Orders and BilUnHions of 
Men, and What indeed will have the Strongeft Influence 
upon them in their Improvement in the Art of Dying 
well namely to Diflinguifh between the jPleafares of 
Earth and Heaven *, To Look beyond the Grave, and to 
Live in a Conftant Contemplation of Things Invifible. 

F f a For 


a The Art of ^jing well. 

For the Apoftles Reafoning, with which I fliall Con- 
clude, will always hold Good, and the /Death of the 
Righteous Man will Convince him of the Truth of it, 
viz. That our Light AffliUions which are but for a 1^9- 
ment^ will work for us a far more Exceeding and Eternal 
weight of Glory '^ While we look not at the Things which 
are feen^ hut at the Things which are not feen *, For the 
Things which are feen are Temporal^ but the Things which 
are not feen are Eternal, 




Preparatory to a Happy Death ; 
To be ufed in the Time of 

A grayer for a Holy and J^irtuous Life. 

Almighty God the Fountain of all GraceJ 
a,iid the Author of all Holinefi, who by 
Thy Divine Spirit doft Guide, Direft, 
andSanftifyThe Hearts of Thy Faithful 
People do Thou excite in me liich a Lively and 
Aftive Senfe of thy Love towards me, as may pro- 
voke me to Love Thee above all Things. Inlplre 
my Soul with fuchan awful Reverence of Thy Ma- 
jefty, as may make me Fearful to offend Thee i 


'2 7 7 The Art of Dying well. 

with fuch a Firm Belief of Thy Providence as 
may always Encourage me to Truft and Confide 
in Thee with fuch lafting ImprelTions of Thy Mer- 
cy and Goodnefi towards me, as may Convince me 
that all Returns of Duty, Gratitude, and Obedi- 
ence, are due unto Thee. Grant that I may De- 
vote that Life, which Thou haft given me, en- 
tirely to Thy Service *, that lb my Will may be 
Conformable to Thine in all Things *, and that I 
may Purify myfelf, even as Thou art Pule. Give 
me Grace Conftantly to follow the BlefTed Example 
of Thy Son Jefus Chrift, that fo I myfelf may be 
an Example to others, in all Holy Converfation 
and Godlinels. Let not the Prefent State of 
Health I now enjoy, nor the leeming Diftance of 
Eternity, make me Carelefi and Negligent in Pro- 
viding for my Laft Hour ; but Give me Strength 
and Refolution, not only to Conftcrate the Firft- 
Fruits of my Age to thy Glory, but to Continue 
Always in well-doing \ That lb my whole Spirit, 
Soul, and Body, may be prelented Blamelefi at 
the Coming of Thy BleiTed Son, My Lord and 
Saviour "Jefus Chrljf. Amen. 

j4 Prayer 

The Art of Dying wcU. a a 5 

A Trajerfor a Contemp of the World. 

OHoIy and moft Merciful Saviour, who haft 
Taught me both by Thy Precept and by 
Thy Example, That I muft Dye to the World, if 
I would Live^to Thee *, Convince me by thy En- 
lightning Grace, how Empty and Inlufficient all 
worldly Enjoyments are, to fill the Defires of an 
Immortal Soul. Let not the Splendour of Great- 
nefe, nor the Allurements of Pleafure, nor the De- 
lights of Senfe, nor the' Love of Riches ever lb 
far Prevail upon me, as to leparate me from the 
Love of God, which is in Chrift Jelus. And that 
I may neither Love the World, nor the Things 
that are in the World, Enable me by thy Grace 
to Afpire after Heavenly and more Lafting Satis- 
faftions*^ That fb Raifing my Thoughts and De- 
fires above the World, all my AfTe^ions may 
Unite in Thee, v/ho art the Fulnefs of all Things^ , 
Let the Vanity and Unfatisfaftorineis of all Earthly 
Pleafure Inllruft me, that thou didft originally create 
me for a more Glorious Liheritance and let a Senle 
of that Shame, and Remorfe which flow from an 
' ' * ExcefTive 

Exceflive Love of this World,make me Thoughtlefs 
and Indifferent as to the Enjoyment of it. Grant, 
O thou BlefTed Saviour of Mankind, That I may 
follow Thy great Example of Mortification and 
Self-Denial in all Things ^ that fo living by Faith> 
and not by Sight, and denying myfelf the Pleafures 
of this Life, 1 may at laft Inherit thole Plealures 
which fliall laft always. I humbly requeft This for 

thy Merits, and thy Mercies fake. Jmetj, 


A Trajer for Improvement in the Three 
Chrifiian Graces^ of Faith^ Hope, and 

O Infinitely Holy, and All-knowing God, who 
with fo much Wifdom haft Contrived Thy 
Holy Religion, as to make it a State of Improve- 
mentjand haft therefore commanded me to Grow in 
Grace ^ Grant, that in Obedience to Thy Command, 
1 may conftantly exerciie mylelf in the Practice of 
all Chriftian Duties,even to the Higheft Mealures and 
Degrees of Them. And becaule Thou haft aiTur'd 
me, That without Faith it is ImpoiTible to Pleafe 
Thee, Give me fuch a Mealiire of Tj^ Grace ; 


The Art of Dying well. 215 

That I may fubmit my Reafon to thy Word, 
That fo, where 1 cannot Comprehend, I may Adore 
Thy Infinite Wifdom. And that my Faith in Thee 
and Thy Holy Word may not reft only in my Un- 
derftanding, but may reach my Will and AfFe£lions 
alio ^ Do thou enable me to Aftuate and Enliven it 
with Love, and with Good Works ^ That I may 
^t laft Attain to the End of my Faith, even the, 
Salvation of my Soul. And Becaule Thou O God, 
by reafon^of the All-fufficiency of Thy Nature, art 
the Only Hope of all the Ends of the Earth, 
Grant that I may not only Believe in Thee, but 
may alfo Truft, and lecurely reft upon Thee ^ That 
fo, whether it be in Proiperity or Adverfity, whe- 
ther in Life, or Sickneis, or Death, I may ifirmly 
Depend on thy Providence Here, and the Enjoy- 
ment of thy Prelence Hereafter. And fmce thou 
haft been pleas'd to fet fo High a Value upon the 
Duty of Charity, as to give it the Preference even 
to Faith and Hope, Infpire my Soul, OGod, with 
fuch an Ardent and lb Hearty an Affeftion to- 
wards Thee, that I may Love Thee Principally for 
Thine own Sake, that fo my Love to Thee may not 
Proceed from a fenle of Intereft, but Duty. And that 
I may exprels my Love to Thee by fuch Inftances of 
it, as are moft Beloved by Thee, Grant that I may 

G g Exercife 

aa6 The Art of Tfying isoell. 

Exerclfe all the Offices of Love, of Tendernefi, aiid 
Affeftion to others that lb Increafing Daily in a 
State of Grace, I may at laft arrive to a State of 
Glory, through Jefus Chrift ou r Lord. j4men- 

A Trayer for IVatchfulneJs^ and a Due 
^Preparation to meet our Lord at the 
Time of Death. 

OOnly Infinite and Eternal God, who by Daily 
Speftacles of Mortality doft Convince mej 
That there is nothing more Certain than Death, and 
nothing more Uncertain than the hour of Death; 
Give me Grace to Improve thefe Holy Thoughts 
to thofe Religious Purpofes which Thou intendeft 
by them ; That lb from a Conlideration of the 
Death of others I may Learn how Frail and Uncertain 
my own Condition is, and from a Confideratiou 
of the Uncertainty of ray own Death, I may Live in 
a Conftant Preparation for it. And becaufe I knaw 
neither the Day nor the Hour when the Son of 
Man cometh. Grant that I may always Watch ac- 
cording to his Command, that when He cometh he 
may find me lb Doing. But becaufe thofe Duties 
are moft Acceptable to Thee, which are moH 
Voluntary and Free ^ Affift me, Good God, with 


The Art ofJ)jmg well. i iy 

thy Holy Spirit, that fo I may Begin and Conti- 
nue and Finifh this Great Work when my Health 
ihall beft enable me to perform it 5 That fo my 
Obedience may not appear to be an Aft of Necef- 
fity and Fear, but of Choice and Love. And for- 
afmuch as the Cares and Pleafures, and Diverfions, 
of this World, are apt to make me Unmindful of 
that Great Change, I muft ihortJy undergo, Grant 
that by aRehglousSolitude, and a Seafonable Retire- 
ment froip it, I may always Live in a Conftant 
Thought of Dying 1; that whether I Live, I may 
Live unto the Lord, or whether I dye, I may Dye 
unto the Lord ^ fo that whether Living or Dying I 
I may be Thine ^ through Jcfus arift our Lord, 

A Trayer for Beneficence, and the Right 
"PiJM'^^fdimrldly Riches. 

O God who art the Great Proprietor both of 
Heaven and Earth, and from whom there- 
fore all Good Things do come ; Give me Grace to 
make a Right Ufe of all thofe Gifts and BlelTings 
whether Spiritual or Temporal, which Thou haft 
Beftowed upon me. In a Particular Manner Difpofe 
my Heart, freely to Give to others, a Reafonable 
Share, of what I have freely Received from Thee. 

G g 2 To 

a i8 The Art of T)ying well. 

To this Purpofe, Grant that I may look upon my lelf 
as having no Right in Thole Riches 1 now poffefe, 
but only as Thy Steward and Difpenler of them. 
And as Thou by Virtue of that Abfolute Property 
Thou haft in all Things, haft been pleasM, by the 
Laws of Charity, to aftign our Superfluities to the 
Poor and Needy *, Let me always Conlider, That 
I cannot without bjury and Injuftice with-hold 
fhera from Them. And that I may fupply the 
Wants of others, with Cheerfulnefi ai?d a Free 
Spirit, give me a Feeling Senfe of all their Wants 
and Afflictions v That I may Proportion my Cha- 
rity to the Greatneis of their KecefTities, Teach 
me to Retrench my own Appetites, and to Mode- 
rate my Defires, that fo neither the Expenfive De- 
mands of Pride, Luxury, or Pleafure, may ever - 
dilable me for Providing for Them. And as a 
Freili Obligation to that AlTiftance and Compailion 
which both by the Laws of God and Nature they 
are Entitled to Grant that I may effectually con- 
fider Them in all the Different Relations they bear 
to me, whether as Men, or Chriftians, Relations, 
or Friends ^ that fo I may adjuft my Charity to the 
Different Exigencies of all men. Prelerve me by 
thy Good Providence from all Hatred and Malice^ 
even to my moft Implacable Enemies, that I may 


The Art of ^tng weU. 129 

not look upOQ their Difeffeftion to me, as any Juft 
Caufe for Cruelty and Unmercifulnels in mylelf^ 
That fo my Mercy to others may be Returned in 
the Pardon and Forgivenels of my own Sins thro' 
Jefus Chrifi our Lord. Amen, 

A Trayerfor Piety towards God^ Juftice 
toimrds our Neighbour ^ and Tempe- 
rance in Our/elves. 

OAll-Powerful, All-Merciful, and All-Glorious 
Lord God, who by the Perfections of Thy 
Own Nature, and thy Benefice;ice to Men, art En- 
titled to the Higheft Praile, and Moft Humble 
Adoration, Poflefi my Soul with luch an Awful 
Reverence of thy Majefly, wheii 1 Addreis my- 
lelf to Thee, that I may Behave myfeif in Thy 
Prefencewith allThofe Devout Dilpofition of Soul, 
which aredue from a finful Creature to hismoftHoly 
Creator. Let the Words of my Mouth, and the 
Meditation of my Heart be always Acceptable in 
Thy Sight, O Lord my Strength and my Redeemer! 
And fince I cannot offer my Devotions with any 
Prolpeft of Succefi to Succefi to thee, unlels I do 


a^o The Art of 7)ying well. 

Juftice to others j Grant that I may Confider the Obli- 
gations, I lay under of Fulfilling the Great Law <^ 
Equity, in Doing to Others whatlbever I rayfelf 
would Defire They fhould Do unto me ; That lb 
I may not Over-reach, or Go beyond Them in any 
Thing, but may Give Them whatlbever they may 
have a Juft Right and Title to, As by the Laws of 
Chriftian Charity, they have a Right to my Good 
Opinion of them, to Truth aud Sincerity in all my 
Expreflions to them, and to an Honeft and Con- 
fcientions Ufuage in all my Dealings with them ^ 
O let me Think, and Speak, and A9: by them 
with an Univerfal Integrity and Juflice. JLet 
not too levere a Prolecution of my Own Right 
make me to Invade Theirs ^ That lb 1 may 
no way Injure them, under a falfe Pretence 
of Doing Juftice to myfelf ^ And Becaule Thou haft 
been pleas'd to Prefcribe the Duty of Temperance 
to Oarfelves, as well as of Juftice to Others, Grant 
that 1 may make Ule of all the Neceftaries of Life 
to thofe Ends and Purpofes only, for which Thou 
didft firft Create them, and Beftow them on me ; 
That lb I may live up to the Stri£left Rules of De- 
cency and Moderation in the Enjoyment of them, 
and may not abafe the Dignity of my Nature by 
Intemperance and Excels; Let the Obligations I 
lay under of Preferving my Health, prevent me 


The Art of ^ytng "weJl. a 5 1 

from the Ule of Such Means, as would Effeftually 
Deftroy it. And that I may keep my Body in So- 
bernefs and Chaftity, give me Grace to Mortifie 
and Subdue all the Inordinate Defires of the Flefh 
by a Regular and Sober Life^ That fo my Flefh be- 
ing entirely brought in Subjeftion to the Spirit, I 
may always obey Thy Godly Motions in Righte- 
oufcels and true Hoiinefi, thro' Jefus Chrift our 
Lord. Amen* 

ATrayerfor all HolyAffe^tons in theEs^ 
ercife of Devotion. 

O Infinitely Holy, Wife, and moft Merciful 
Father, who haft been pleafed to Inftitute the 
Duty of Prayer, as the Ordinary Mean?^ of Obtain- 
ing all thofe Spiritual and Temporal Bleflings . I 
have occafion for, Do Thou PolTefe my Soul with 
Such a Reverential Awe of thy Excellence, whert 
1 Addrels raylelf to Thee, as comports with the 
Dignity of Thy Nature, and Thy Beneficence to 
me. O Let me always Truft in Thy Infinite Wit 
dom which Knows alj my Necefiities, and in Thy 
Infinite Power, and Extenfive Goodnefs which i$ 
Able, and Willing to Relieve them. Let a Juft 
Senfe of the Great Honour vouchfafed to me, in 


552 The Art of Trying well. 

Permitting me to Open my Wants Before Thee, 
Excite in me all thole Devout AfFeO:ions, without 
which, I cannot with any Succefs Prefent my Sup- 
plications unto Thee. That I may Obtain the Re- 
miflion of my Own Sins, Grant that I may always 
Pray to Thee with fuch a Charitable Dilpofition of 
Mind as is Ready and Willing to Forgive the Offen- 
ces of Others. Let the Confideration of thy Great- 
nels, Affeft me with fuch an Humble Opinion of 
myfelf, as may Convince me of The Great Diftance 
there is Between the Creatour and the Creature ^ 
That ib I may not Truft in mine own RighteouCiels 
in The Grant of my Prayers, but in Thy Mercy 
and Kindnefi to me. Inlpire my Soul with luch a 
Firm Belief of thy Good Providence, as may Inr 
fpirit and Inflame all my Devotions to Thee with 
Fervency and Zeal. And that 1 may not make my 
Requefls to Thee, for what may be Superfluous, 
Inconvenient, or Prejudicial to me, do Thou En- 
lighten my Underflanding, That fo I may Know 
what is Reafonable for me to Ask, and Worthy 
of Thee to Give. And that I may Obtain a Full fup- 
pjy of all my Temporal Neceflities, Grant that I 
may Firfl feek the Kingdom of God and his Righ- 
teoufnefs. That fo all Thofe things may be added 
unto me. Accept ThefePetions, and Confirm them O 
Heavenly Father for the fake of ihy Sen Jf/ttJ Chrifi^ 
yimert. ^ grayer 

The Art of Dying well. a g ^ 

A Trayer for Ahjlinence^ or the Right 
Terformmce of the Duty ofFajling. 

OGod who has commanded me to Preftnt my 
Body, a Living Sacrifice, Holy, Acceptable 
unto Thee, and who by the Example of thy Blefled 
Son Jelus Chrift haft Inftru£i:ed me to Humble my 
Soul wkhjFafting^ That I may Exercife mylelf in a - 
Conftant Meditation upon Heaven, and Heavenly 
Things, and may bring my pleflily Appetites in 
Subjedion to the Spirit, Give me Grace to Ule fuch 
Abftinence, that 1 may always Obey thy Godly Mo- 
tions in Righteouftefs and True Holinefi. And that 
I may never Dlfpleafe Thee by any Ads of Intem- 
perance, and Excels, let me always Govern myfelf 
by fuch a fevere Exercife of Mortification, and 
Self-Denial, as may Kill and Subdue all Vices in me ^ 
That 1 may alfo Perform this Duty in fuch a Manner 
as may be moft Acceptable to Thee \ Let no Afied- 
ation of Popularity and Vain-Glory \ but an Hum- 
ble Sence of my own Unworthineii always Excite 
me to it. And That my Fafting may more Effe£lu- 
ally Recommend itfelf to Thee, let it be always 
Attended with the Offices of Prayer and Devotion, 

H h and 

^54- An of Dying well. 

and a Deep Humiliation for all my Offences agalnft 
Thee ; That fo Affli^ing myfelf Here, I may Re- 
joyce with Thee Hereafter, and my Fafting in This 
World may be a Religious Means of Feafting with 
Thee in Thy Heavenly Kingdom through Jefm 
Chrift our Lord. Jmen. . . 

A Trayer for a Cbaritahle and Com^ajji- 
onate Temper of Mind, 

OHoly and moft Merciful God, who fb Highly 
Regarded the Duty of Charity, as to make 
the Final Sentence of the Laft Judgment to depend 
upon it, and haft been pleafed to Recommed it not 
only from a Confideration of the Wants of others, 
but alio from thole Tender Principles of Pity, and 
Affeftion thou haft Implanted in all Men, Prelerve 
me always by thy Holy Spirit from all Inclemency 
and Hardnels of Hearty that fb I may never Over- 
look the Miferies and Afflictions of Thole, whom 
Thou art pleafed to vizit with Want or Trouble. 
Let a Senfe of Thy Companion to me, in the For- 
givenefs of my Sins, move me to a Tender Compaf^ 
fion to others, in the Relief of their NecefTities. 
And Becaufe no Duty is Acceptable to Thee ^ unlels 
' ' it 

The Art of Dji^g ^ 3 5 

it IS Performed with thofe Good Qualifications which 
Thou haft Lifeperably annexed to the Performance 
of it Let a fincere Love of Thee, and a willing Obe- 
dience to Thy Commands, engage me to an Affefti- 
onate Concern for the Wellfare of others. That I 
may Supply their Wants with the greateft Advan- 
tage to Themlelves, let me always Exprefi my 
Charity to Them, in the moft Sealbnable manner ^ 
that fb they may Receive my Afliftance, when they 
have moft Occafion for it. In the Diftribution of 
my Charity, let the Confideration of thy Bounty and 
Munificence to me, Enlarge my Heart that my 
CompafEoH may Rife up to the Meafure of their 
Wants 'j That fo making to myfelf Friends of the 
Mammon of Unrighteoufiiefs, they may at laft re- 
ceive me into Everlafting Habitations. Thefe Pe- 
titions I Befeech Thee to Hear , and to Accept 
through the Merits and Meditation of thy BlefTed 
Son Chrift Jefus, Amen. 

H h 2 j4 fraj6Y 

2^6 The Art of Dying well. 

A Trayer to God for his Ajfiflance in a 
Religiom JVatchfulnefs over our SenfeSj 
and a Due Regulation of them. 

O Almighty God, and Heavenly Father, who 
did'il Originally Create all the Powers both 
of my Soul and Body, for Thy Service That my 
Outward Senies may no way prove the Inftruments 
of conveying any Thing vv^hich is Impure »- into my 
Soul, Grant that I may always keep them in a Due 
Subferviency to thole Laws, which Thou haft been 
pleafed to Prefcribe for the Government of them, 
and a Regular Fixednefs to Thofe Objects which 
Thou haft Appointed for Them. That I may not 
engage my Atfedions too far in any Unlawful De- 
Tiresof theFlelh, Grant that 1 may make a Cove- 
nant with my Eyes, that they may never lead me 
into the Defilements of Incontinency and Luft. Let 
the Contemplation of the Beauty and Comelinefs of 
all Created Beings, Excite in me the Pureft Flames 
of Divine Love to Thee Only, the moft Amiable 
Fountain of all Beauty, and Perfection. And leaft 
the Evil Converfation of others iliould have any In- 
fluence upon me in my Senfe of Heaving, Grant I 


The Art of Dying well. 157 

that I may Conftantly avoid the Acquaintance of 
Thofe Men, who by Prophane and Atheiflical 
Difcourfe, by Calumny and Reflexion, or any other 
way of Evil-Speaking, ihall offend againft Thee 
their God, their Neighbour, or Themfelves. And 
linceThou^waft Pleafed to Create This Senfe forma- 
. ny Holy and Religious Purpofes, to Anfwer Thy 
Intentions therein, Grant that I may Conftantly 
Employ myfelf in Hearing and Receiving Thy Ho- 
ly Word ^ and in taking care, That I Hear it, with 
Reverence and Attention. Thefe Petitions, I Hear- 
tily beg, may be Accepted through the Interceffion 
of "Jefus Chrift the R ighteous, jdmefj, 

^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

A Trayer for Re^entancl^ md Reformat 
tion of Life, 

O Heavenly Father, who art lb Kind, and 
Cdmpaffionate to the Souls of Men, as t6 
Accept of their Repentance, as the Condition of thy 
Forgivenefi *, Give me a Peep and an Afflifting 
Senfe of all my Sins^ of all the Circumftances and 
Aggravations of them ; and of the Great Danger 
to which they expofe me That lb my Repentance 
piay Rife in Proportion to my Guilt, and that 


a 58 The Art of ^ytng well. 

Thy Mercy may Exceed my Guik, and my Repent- 
ance alfojin the Pardon of them. Let the Confiderati- 
on of Thy Bounty and Beneiiceiice to me, A-waken me 
into a Thorough Compun^ion for my Ingratitude to 
Thee. That I may truely Repent me of my Sins* 
Grant that I may Effectually Reform my Life j That I 
xnay with Succeft Confefi them to Thee, give me 
Grace to Forlake them alfo. To this end Empower 
me, by thy Divine Afliflance to Conquer all thofe Vi- 
cious Habits,and Inclinations which Separate,beJ:ween 
me, and my God. Let a Serious Refle£lion on thofe 
Inconceiveable Pains, and x^gonies Thou was pleafed 
to Suffer for my Sins, lead me into Abhorrence of 
them ^ That as Thou waft pleafed to Offer upThyfelf 
iarme,fbby Forfaking them, I may wholly offer upmy 
lelf unto Thee, Through Jefus Chrift^ our Lord. Jmeri* 

.t- * ^t' ! ■!> S '% ^ '% .$? ^ ^ S 

tS; Wits tjwj t«j (^iS? tSs Wjj j tAfc> citSJ wjW xMs wjj tS? oSj cSj tMO 

/4 Thankjgtving to God^ for our Admfr 
, fwn into the Chriflian Churchy by Ba^* 

MY Soul, O God, is Filled'with Thy Praife,in 
that Thou liaft Adopted me by Chriftian 
Baptifm into a Sonfhip. to Thee, and haft made me 
an Heir of Thy Kingdom. I Behold with Gratitude 


The Art of J)ymg well, a 

and Joy, the Glorious Priviledges I am Entitled to. 
I am now a Member of that Church, which Chrift 
himfelf hath Purchafed with his own Blood ^ let 
me Exprefs my Higheft Acknowledgments for fb 
Ineftimable a Mercy, in Being like That Church; 
Holy, and without Blemiih. I Believe, O God, 
all the Incomprehenfible Miseries of the Chriftian 
Faith ^ Grant that I may always fhew forth thy 
Praife for lb Beneficial a Revelation, by a Life A- 
greeableto the Belief of Them. Thou haft Cleans- 
ed me, O Merciful Father, and haft Purified me 
by Baptifm, from all Filthinefs of Fleih and Spirit, 
let me Return my Gratitude to Thee, in Perfed- 
ing Holinefs in the Fear of God. Since I have been 
Walh'd, Since I have been Sandify'd, Since I have 
been Juftify'd In the Name, and by the Spirit of 
Jelus Chrift , I will Offer up my Thankfulnefi to 
Thee in my Conformity to Him ; That as I am Bu- 
ry'd with Chrift through Baptifm unto Death, even 
fo I alio may Rife with Him, and Walk in Newnels 
of Life, Through Jefus Chrifi our Lord. Jmen. 

A Trayet 

a 40 The Art of Trying 'well. 

A grayer for Grace and Strength^ to Ter^ 
form the ^romifes we Renewed in our 
own MameSj at Confirmation. 

O Heavenly Father, Equal in Power, and Wif- 
dom, and HoHnels, as thou haft been pleas'd 
to Enlighten my Underftanding with a Perfeft 
Knowledge of that Vow and Covenant, w<hich was 
made in my Name , at my Baptifm *, Confirm and 
Strengthen me with Might, by Thy Spirit, in the 
Inner Man, that I may Execute, what I have lb 
Solemnly Promifed, with Firmnels and Relblution. 
To this Purpole Do Thou Enable me by the Power 
of Thy Grace, Manfully to Fight under Chrift's 
Banner, in Oppofition to all the Force and Strength 
of my Spiritual Enemies. Grant That I may make 
my Engagements Good to Thee, in a Steady and 
Unchangeable Belief of all the Articles of thy Holy 
Religion, That fo I may Believe Them , becaufe 
Thou haft Revealed them, and may efteem the 
Belief of Them, as the only Foundation of a Good 
Life. And That my Faith in Thy Word may be 
AO:uated by Love and by Good Works, Empower 
xne, with Farther Meafures of thy Spirit, to Pay 


The Art of 'Dying weU^ 24. i 

an Univerlal Obedience to all Thy Com man is, and 
Conftantly Perlevere in Them *, That lb having my 
Fruit unto HolineiS, my End may be, Everlafting 
Life, Through Jefus Chrifi our Lord. Amen» 

A Trayer Preparatory to the Holy Com^ 

OBlefTed Jefus, who did'fl: Suffer Death upon 
the Crofs, that Thou mighteft Save all Men, 
and Inviteft me to Celebrate the Remembrance of 
thy Death and Paflion^ Give me Grace to Ap- 
proach thy Prefence, in this Holy Feaft, with that 
Awe and Reverence, and Devotion to Thee, as 
thereby to Receive all the Spiritual Advantages of 
Thy hiconceiveable Sufferings for me. Make me a 
Clean Heart, O God, and Renew a Right Spirit 
within me. Caft me not away from Thy Prefence, 
and Take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Let a 
Senfe of Thy Infinite Goodnefs to me, in the Sa- 
crifice ofThyfelr, and of Thy InexpreiTible Love 
to me, in Accomplifhing the Great Work of my 
Redemption, excite in me a Holy Contrition for all' 
my Sins, and a Firm Refolution againft them. In- 
creafe and Improve in me fuch a Lively and Ac- 
tive Faith as Thou Required in All thofe who come 

I i to 

The Art of Trying well. 

to Thy Holy Table. Let not my Hatred, or 
Anger, or Malice to Others Prevent the Blefled Ef- 
ficJacy of This Holy Sacrament oti myfelf nor my 
Unthankfulnefs to Thee for fb Ineftimable Love to 
me, deprive me of the Benefits of fo Valuable a Pro- 
pitiation That lb Receiving thefe Holy Mifteries 
in fuch a Manner as is Acceptable to Thee, 1 may 
Obtain a Full Pardon of all my Sins, and be Filled 
with Thy Grace, and Heavenly Ble/Ting, Through 
Jefus Chrifi our Lord, jimen. 




Preparatory to a Happy Death ; 
To be ufed in the Time of 

Trayer for a Good Improvement of the 
Confideration of i)eatk 

Merciful and BlelTed Lord God, who art 
the Author of Life, and Deaths I now 
ai>-.X Perceive toy Indifpofition to En- 

creafe, and the Pains of Death to Take hold upon 
me *, O Ipare me a little that I may Recover my 
Strength, before I go hence, and be no more feen, 
I am now fully Convinced, I Hope not too late Con- 
n 2, . yiiic'dj 

'23^^ The Art of Dying well. 

vinc'd, of the Vaaity and Emptinefs of all Worldly 
Pleafarcs ^ O Dllpofe my Soul, I Earneftly Be- 
feech Thee, to a Sincere Repentance, for all my 
Immoderate Enjoyments of them. ' I behold with 
Confufion of Thought, and with Trembling of Heart 
all my Paft Tranfgreffions, now fetting themfelves 
in Array againfl me O do thou Awaken, tho' it 
be with Terrour, my Sleepy Coafcience *, and let 
me rather feel the Guilt of my Sins, than the Dread- 
ful Punifhmeat of them. Forgive me, O Heavenly 
Father, Forgive me my Sinful Compliances with 
the Fafhionable Vices , of this Wicked World, and 
all my Weaknels and Cowardile in Refifting the 
Temptations of it ^ Forgive me the 111 ule I have 
made of all thole Mercies I have received from 
Thee. O Remember not the Sins and Offences of 
my Youth, but Think Thou upon me, O Lord, for 
Thy Goodnels. Let me not Deceive myfelf by any 
Ismaginary Hopes of a longer Continuance in This 
World, and thereby neglea: the Prefent Opportuni- 
ty of faying ^ Lord be Merciful to me a Sinner. 
Pardon^ Good God, my Great TranlgrefTion, in 
not having made a Right ufe of the Time paft in a 
Due Preparation for my latter End^ and Grant, 
that a Thorough Coiiviaion of my Negligence in 
ff) Doing may excite in me the moft A^ive, and Vi- 


The. Art of Trying well. a 4 5 

goroiis Endeavours to make my Peace with Thee, 
before I leave this Prefent World. All this 1 
beg for the lake of Him, who Died and Role again 
for me. Thy Son Jefus Chrifi. Amen. 

A grayer for a Good Improvement of the 
Confideration of a future judgment. 

OThou Sovereign Judge of the whole World, 
at whofe Tribunal, and in whole Prelence all 
Mankind muft Appear, to give a Juft Account of all 
their Thoughts, Words, and Anions, Grant that 
I may always Live under the Awful Influence of 
fuch an Awakening Confideration *, That lb I may 
not Dare to Do any Thing in Thy fight Here, lor 
which I Know That Thou will furely Judge, and 
Punilh me Hereafter : Let not the Seemingly DI- 
ftributions of Thy Providence make to Diftruft ei- 
ther Thy Wifdom, or Juftice, Since Thou haft been 
Plealed to Appoint a Day, wherein thele Differen- 
ces fhall be finally Adjufted before Thee, and the 
whole World. O Let my Conlcience Rile up in 
Judgment againft me in This Life, that Thou may'ft 
not Condemn me in the next. That I may not 


be Judged by Thee, Grant that \ a^ajr. Judge of o*. 
th^rs, With Charity, and Truth- Ai?d Becaufe \% 
5g Impo jlible to Deceive The,e by any feWe Pretences 
to Piety and Holinefi, let me always Aft with that 
Openefi and Sincerity in the whole Courfe of my 
Obedience to Thee, that I may not fear to Appear 
Before Thee with a Holy Confidence, and a Firm 
Alfurance of Thy Favour. If the Malice of a Cenlb- 
rious and 111-Natured World fhall unjuftly pafe Sen- 
tence upon me. Give me Patience O God, to Bear 
their Reproaches, with an Evenels and Conftajicjj 
9f Mind, as being fully perfwaded, that my Caufe i^ 
to be Try'd again at thy Tribunal, and That the 
judge of all the Earth will do me Right. I beleech 
Thee to hear thefe Petitions for the fake of thy 
Ble^ied Son Chnft Jefus. Amen. 

jd Trayer for a Good Im^Kov^ment of the 
Cbnftdcration of Hvll Torments. 

O God, Iiiftuitely Juft and Powerful, who art 
a Confjming F^re to all Impenitent Sinners, 
Grant that the Fear of Tiiy Power, and a Religious 
Bread of thy Juftice may Prevail flrongly upon 
<ne in my Obedience to Thee *, That lb 1 may nei- 

The Art df ffying well. ^4. 7 

ther Tempt the One, nor Provoke the Other. Let 
a Conftant Thought of the Greatnels, and Duration 
of Eternal Punifhment Quicken and Stir me up in 
my Utmoft Endeavours to Avoid it 5 And that 1 
itiay neither Sin againft Thee, my Neighbour, or 
mylelf, let me never be Unmindful of the Dreadful 
Confequence of lb Doing, that lb by conlidering 
th^t the Wages of Sin is Death, I may hav^ nif 
fruit unto HoHnels, and my End may be Everlaft- 
ing Life. Empower me to let loofe to all the Plea- 
iures of this World, that fo my Delight may not 
end in Heavin^fs, ^nd my Preftnt Satisfaftions, with 
'Lamentation, and Mourning, and Woe. Dire^ 
ine with a Spirit of Wil3om and Courage, that I 
may not incur the Fierceneis of Thy Anger, to 
Gratify a Brutifh Luft, or an tfnrealbnable Paffioru 
That theTerrours of thy Threatnings may never tie 
Executed upon me. Incline my Heart to Avert 
them by a Speedy and Sincere Repentance That lb 
when Death lhall make a Separation of my Soul and 
Body, I may then Enter into the Joy of my Lord aiid 
Saviour Jefus Chrift* Amen. 

A Frayef 

a 48 Art of ^ying well. 

A grayer for a Good Improvement of the 
Conftderation of the Hci^pnefs of the 

OGod who did'ft Originally Form me for the 
Enjoyment of Thyfelf, and haft therefore 
Prepared for me fuch Joys as do equally Surpafs my 
Thoughts, as they Exceed my Admiration *, Let 
the Contemplation of the Nearnels of fo Great Hap- 
pinefi Enable me to Pals thro' the Vale of Death 
with Cheerfulnefi, and an Humble Refignation to 
Thy Will. Let the^Confideration of thole Durable, 
and Lafting PoflefTjons, I ftall enjoy in Heaven 
Difengage my Thoughts from thole Riches I am 
leaving Here v and the Expectation of that Fullnefs 
of Joy, which is at Thy Right hand Dilpo le me to a 
Willing Obedience in Parting with all thePlealuresof 
Flelh and Senfe. Let the Prolpeft of That Honour, 
I fliall be Advanced to in my Glorify'd Body, E- 
ftrange my Affections and Defires from all Tempo- 
ral Greatnefi. Unite my Soul to Thee, who art 
the Fullnels of all Happinels, by the Strongeft Tyes 
of Faith, Love and Obedience, that fo at laft I may 
te more clofely united to Thee in Vifion, and En- 

The Art ofT>ying ^^socU. 149 

joyment. My Soul is a Athirft for God, yea even for 
the Living God when fhall I come, and appear be- 
fore the Prefence of God ? Make hafle O Lord, De- 
liver me from all the Difficulties, and Troubles, and 
Temptations of this Mortal State , Even fb Come 
ior^i J^yj^^, come quickly. Amen. 

^^^1^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

A Grayer to God for this T)ireB.ion in the 
Diffofd of our Worldly Affairs. 

OGod, v/ho of- Thy Infinite Goodnefs, haft 
been lb Bountiful to me, as to Blefi me, in 
my Continuance in this World, with fuch a Suffici- 
ency of Temporal Riches, as Enables me to be Be- 
neficent, and Charitable to others ^ Direft me^tliy 
Good Spirit, to Difpofe of what Jhou haft Given 
according to fuch Rules of Prudence, Juftice, ajjd 
CompaiTion, as ;may moft conduce to Thy Glory, 
aad the Good of Mankind. If thro' Inadvertency , or 
'WillfulneG, 1 have any ways Injur'd, or Over- 
^teach'd my Neighbour, Jet me Difcharge my Con- 
,ftience-of fo Great a Guilt, tliat lb I may Effeftu- 
ally make my Peace with Thee. Let a Spirit of 
Tendernefs and CompaiTion move me to a Principal 
^.-R^^ard to Thofe, who are moft Nearly Related to 

K k me^ 

i 5 o The Art of T>ying well. 

me and Grant, that I may take no Occafion from 
any former Unkindnefi on Their Part, to Break 
thro' the Obh'gations of Kature, and Dying in a 
State of Unmercifulnefi to Mylelf, in being Un- 
merciful to Them. Dilpofe my Heart alfo, O 
Thou Lover of Men, to a Brotherly Concern, and a 
Generous Supply of thofe whom I fhall leave Behind 
me in Want or Trouble, as Fearing that I fhall find 
Judgment .without Mercy, if I ihew no Mercy to 
Them. I befeech Thee to Avert This Judgment, 
for Thy Mercies fake. Jmen, 

A Trayer for the T>tvine AJfiflance in a 
V' Diflind Confejjion of all our Sins. 

O Eternal God, and moft Merciful Father, 
who art Faithful and Juft, in Forgiving all 
thole who fhall Confefs their Sins unto Thee, Af- 
fift me with Thy Heavenly Grace , that I may 
Thankfully Perform the Condition, upon which 
Thou haftPromiled fb Great a BleiTmg to me. Enable 
me by Thy Spirit, in a Deep Seule of my Own Un- 
worthinefi in Provoking Thee, to Take the Whole 
Guilt of all my Sins upon mylelf; That lb I may 
jiot plead the Prevalency of Nature, and the Power 


The Art of Try ing well' 151 

of Temptation, as any Excufe or Extenuation of 
them. And that my Confelfion to Thee, may be 
more Availeable to my own Pardon, Grant that by 
an Univerlal Enquiry into the State of my own 
Confcience, I may Deal Impartially with myfelf in 
an Honeft, and Humble Acknowledgement of every 
Known Sin, and all the Dilpleafing Circumftances, 
and Aggravations of it. Let not the Shame of my 
own Wickednels, nor the Fear of having Offended 
Thee, nor the Sorrow arifing from a Senfe of my 
Tranlgreflions, ever Difcourage me from lo Necet 
lary a Duty ; that lb by ConfeHing my Sins with 
Sorrow Here, I may be Rewarded in the Forgive- 
nefi of them, with Joy in Thy Heavenly Kingdom, 
Thro' J^y^J Chrl^ our Lord. Amen* 

A 7rayer to God for our Worthy Re^ 
ceivtng the Holy Sacramento 

OThou Blefled Saviour of Mankind, at whole 
Table I am now Prefent, and before whole 
Awfiil Tribunal I mull: Shortly appear, do Thou 
Strengthen my Departing Soul witii this Heavenly 
5.ntertainment in its way to Eternity, in all the 
KJc a Agonies 

a 5 ^ The Art of Dying well. 

Agonies of its Diffolution. Let this Spiritual Ban- 
quet, in which my Saviour himfelf is Prefent, and 
by which the Memory of this Paffion is Revived in 
me, Replenifh my Soul with Divine Grace, That 
fo I may BeJioki and Receive with Faith this Holy 
SacriHce, and it may be unto me an Earned of that 
Holy Communion, which I defire to hold with Thee 
in Thy Kingdom. Do Thou AfTure me hereby of thy 
Favour and Goodneft towards me ^ and that I am 
Heir, thro' Hope, of that Everlafting Kingdom 
w-hich Thou haft Purchas'd with Thy own Blood: 
Let Thy Grace Preferve me in This my Laft hour. 
That fb Thy Strength may be made Perfe£l: in my 
VVeaknefs. Grant that this Holy Commemoration 
of Thy Precious Death may be an\Effe£tual Means 
of Preferving my Body and Soul unto Everlafting 
Life ^ That lb from Converfing with Thee in Thele 
Outward Elements of Bread and Wine upon Earth, 
I m.ay be fitly Prepared to Converfe with Thee in 
Heaven, Thro' Jeffcs Chrlfi our Lord. Amsn. 

A Trayer for Spiritual Strefigth in The 
Refifiance of Tempation. 

OGod who art pleas'd to Exercile Mankind 
with niany Difficulties and Temptations, for 
the Approvement of their Faith, their Integrity, 


The Art of Dyir^ i^feU. 25 

their Patience, and their Courage, Permit me not 
to be Tempted above what I am able, but with the 
Temptation alfo make a way to efcape, That I 
may be able to bear it. 1 Acknowledge, O Hea- 
venly Father my own Weaknefs, and hilufficiency 
to Relift the Power of my Spiritual Enemies do 
Thou Enable me by the Communications of thy 
Grace and Spirit to Overcome thofe Temptations, 
with which the Great Enemy of Souls may Try 
my Firmnels to Thee ^ That Id being Faithful unto 
Death, I may at laft Obtain a Crown of Life. O Lord 
Moft Holy, O God moft Mighty, O Holy and 
moft Merciful Saviour, Suffer me not, at my laft 
hour, for any Pains of Death to Fall from Thee- 
Let the Soundnefi of my Faith, The Confideration 
of thy Mercy, and an Invincible Love of Thee,. 
Prevail over all Temptations to hifideiity, Delpair, 
or Hatred and Difaffe^ion to Thee. That 1 may 
not give way, thro' Inadvertency, Weaknels, or 
Wearinefi, to any Allurement of the World, the 
Fleih, or the Devil, to my own Watchfullnefs let 
me add my Supplications to Thee, O BlefTed Jefus i 
Thatthou wouldftbePleas'dto Lead me thro' all 
Dangers, and Support me in all Temptations for 
Thy Mercies lake. Amen. 

The Art of Trying well. 

A Trajer for a T>ue Tre^aration againfl 
Sudden Death. 

OGod who haft AfTured me in Thy holy 
Word, that in the midft of Life I am in 
Death, Proteft and Defend me by thy Good Provi- 
dence from all the Cafualties and Dangers to which 
1 may be expos'd in This Mortal life. O let not 
the Number and Heinoufiiels of my Sins Provoke 
Thee to Execute thy Judgments upon me in (6 
Surprizing a Manner, as to Unqualify me for Thy 
Service-, but Give me O moft Merciful Father 
Give me Time and Grace to make my Peace with 
lliee, and Reconcile myfelf to Thy Favour^ that 
lb I may go down to the Grave, in a Joyful Aftii- 
rance of a BlelTed Immortality. And Becaule I 
know neither the Day, nor the Hour when the 
Son of Man cometh. Jet a Senfe of the Great Dan- 
ger there is, in being Unprovided for a Future 
State, Engage me in a Conftant Remembrance of 
my Departure hence \ that lb when I come to Dye, 
i may have Nothing to do but to Recommend my 
Soul into Thy Hands, as into the Hands of a Faith- 
ful Creator, and moft Merciful Saviour. All This 
Ihumbly Deiire of Thee, for the Merits and Me- 
diatioii of JefH'S Chrifi our Saviour. Jmen. 

A Traycr 

The Art of 7)jmg well. a 5 5 

A Trajer That we may Dje in Teace^ and 
in the Favour of God. 

OGod who haft Commanded me to keep Inno- 
cency. That fo at laft 1 may enjoy Peace 5 
That the Senfe of my Guilt, and the Con visions 
of my Own Confcience may not Rife up in Judg- 
ment againft me in the hour of Death ; Let my 
Devotion, and Repentance Purify it from all thole 
Offences, which may Diipleafe Thee, or create 
any Uneafinefs to my felf , That fb I may not Dye 
under the Fearful Apprehenfions of Eternal Pu- 
nifhment, but in an Enlivening Hope of that BleC- 
ftdneis, which Thou haft Prepared for them that 
Love Thee. And that Neither the Fears, nor 
Pains of Death may any ways Prevent me from 
Looking up to Thee, and Continuing in a Steady 
Obedience unto Thee, ev'n unto the End ^ Grant 
that a Firm Belief of Thy Promiies, and a Full 
AfTurance of thy Favour may make me to Over- 
look whatfbever I may Suffer Here, becaule I fhall 
Enjoy Thee Hereafter. Thefe Devotions I Hum- 
bly Offer up in His name, and Conclude in His 
words, v/ho Dy'd and Rofe again for me, Saying, 
as Fie himfelf has Commanded me ; Our Father^ 
whkh art In Heaven j Hdlowed he thy Name. ' Thy 


2^6 The Art of T)ying well. 

Kingdom come^ Thy mil he done in earthy As it is 
4n Heaven^ Give us this day our daily bread* And 
forgive us our trefjajfes ^ As we forgive them that 
treffafs againft us. And lead us not into temptation h 
But deliver us from evil: For thine is the Kingdom^ 
And the Tower and the Glory , For ever and ever* 






B O O K L 

C H A P. I. 

HE Firft Rule Prifardtary to a Happy Death 
is'j To Live a Holy and a Virtuous 
# Life. ' Pme I 

C H A P. n. 

'fhe Second Rule Fr^aratory to a Hiffy Death is ^ To 
Dye to the World. p. 4 

- C H A P. m. 

Tl}e T'hird Rule Preparatory to a Hafpy Death is To 
Pi'aftice Carefully the Three Theological Graces 
of Fait hy Hope and Charity, P. 11 


158 The CONTENTS. 


The Fjurth Rule Preparatory to a Hapfy Death is ^ To 
Obferve, in a Particular Manner, the Thee Evan- 
gelical Precepts. • P. 19 

C H A P. V. 

The Fifth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is This \ 
That we do not Look upon the Riches which God 
has given us as Properly our Own, but to be uled 
only to thofe good Furpofes for which He gave 

\ them. P. 29 


The Sixth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is j To 
ObferveConftantly the Three Moral Virtues*, viz.. 
Piety towards God, Juftice towards our Neigh- 
bour, and TfW2pfrm-^ in Ourfelves. P» 35 


The Seventh Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is ; To 
Maintain a Conflant Intercourle with God by 
Prayer. P. 41 

CHAP. vm. 

The Eighth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is ^ To 
Exeicife the Duty of Fafting. P. 53 


The CONTENTS. ^59 

C H A P. IX. 

The ISfinth Rule Prefaratory to a Happy Death is : To 
be Charicable to Otliers in the Diftributicn of our 
Alms. ^'59 


ihe Tenth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is ; To 
Watch Conftaiitly over our fenfes, and to keep 
them under a Du$ Regulation. P. 71 


The Eleventh Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is ; 
To Confirra a Sincere a id Uiiiverial Repentance 
by Reformation and Amendment. P. 89 

C H A P. XII. 

The Twelfth Ride Preparatory to a Happy Death is ; To 
be Admitted by Baptifin into the Chriftian 
Church. p. 99 


The Thirteenth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is \ 
To take upon ourlelves the Baptilmal Vow, made 
in our Names by Confirmation. - P. 1 07 


The Lafi Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death is ^ To Re- 
Receive frequently the Holy Communion. P. 1 1 2 


a6o Xfte CONTENTS. 



H E Firfi Rule Trefaratory to a Ha^py Death^ 
upon the Approach of i>, is *, To Confider 
the Nearnefi, and Conlequences of it. 

?. 119 


^he Second Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death ^ upon the 
jlpproach of ity is *, To Confider that God will call 
Men to an Account for all their Actions in the 
Day of Judgment. P. 125 


The Third Rule Preparatory to a Happy Deathy upon the 
approach ef it ^ is To Confider the Duration of 
Hell-Torments. P. 137 

B H A P. IV. 

The Fourth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death, upon the 
j^pproach of it J is To Confider the Glorious and 
Happy State of the BlelTed in Heaven. P. 143 


The CONTENTS, agi 

G H A P. V. 

The Fifth Rule Prefaratory to a Hapfy Deathj upon the 
jipf roach &f ky is \ To Settle, and Dilpofe of our 
Worldly Affairs, by making a WilL P# 1 52 


The Sixth Rule ?refaratory te a Hapfy Death, 1^ the 
Approach of it, is ; To Practice the Duty of Con- 
feffion. P. 155 

CHAP. Vll. 

The Seventh Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death, upon 
the Approach of it^ is j To Receive the BlelTed Sa- 
crament. P. 1 52 


The Eighth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death, upon the 
Approach of it, is-, To Confider the Nature, and : 
Prevalency of thole Temptations, which we are 
moft Expoled to, in our Laft Hours. P. 171 


The Ninth Rule Preparatory to a Happy Death, upon the 
Approach of it, is'. To have Recourle to fiich Re- 
medies for the Refiftance of Temptation, as God 
has Prefcribed. P. 174 




The Tenth Rule Tref oratory to a Hoffy DeAth^ upon the 
jiffroach of it^ is j To Confider the Uncertainty 
of Human Life. P. 183 


^ TraBkd Confider ation of the Happy Death of Good 
Men. p. 187. 

C i? A P. XIL 

Lrf VraBical Canjideratlon of the Unhappy Death Wick- 
ed Men. P. ip2 


The Conchfon of the Whole or the Sum and Sub- 
ftance of the Art of Dying well, Confider'd, and 
Apply'd. P. 2q8 


Form ofTrayer^ Preparatory toaHappy 
^eathj to be ufcd in the Time of Health. 

Page an 


Form ofTrayer^ Preparatory to a Happy 
^eathyto be> ufed in the Time of Stcknefs. 

P. 24.5. 

pAge 10. Line i^, for m Reacijf. p. 29. !. 1 1. f. is* t.^are, p. 
6 5 . 1. 3 , f Exaltation, Exultation* p. 66. 1. 3 . delfc/o."^. 104. 

4. after Feary x.ff, p. 1 16. 1. 1. f. we, i^<r. p. i37.^ottom. 1. 

P/tfw, r,^lace, p. i4o« 4. f. 0/, r^«. p. 171. 1. 3. delete. 
P« 172. 1. 4. f. tbisy tytbat. p. 177. after new Teft del^hicL 
P» 192. Bottom 1. de^tbut* p. 202. 1. Bottom, after next,f. Tbs 
^^ That as. p. 2 12. !. 20.dele^i^. p.222. 1. 5. f. Return, v,Rsturns*